When following traditional festivals and celebrations in Japan, you find out a few interesting things, such as specific ones may have more than one date depending on the prefecture, or goes by a different name depending on the history of each town. For this article, I will introduce Chōyō no Sekku, a festival with a long tradition.
UNDERSTANDING THE TRADITION
Chōyō no Sekku (重陽の節句 ) is 1 of the 5 seasonal festival that originates from Inyō Gogyo Setsu. Before modern times, this took place on the 9th day of the 9th month based on the inreki (陰暦, old calendar). One of the reasons is that according to auspicious readings in ancient Chinese philosophy, odd numbered days are viewed as lucky, while even numbered days are seen as unlucky days. Since 9 is the highest single-digit odd number, Chōyō no Sekku was designated on this date. After Japan adopted a more modernized calendar, this date was changed accordingly by about a month, and takes place on a different day each year within that month. For example, this year it falls on the 25th of October.
In the old calendar, this festival took place around the same time chrysanthemums were in bloom. According to the adjustments the new calendar brings, this still holds true. Due to this, it also received the alternate name of “Kiku no Sekku” (菊の節句, Chrysanthemum Festival). This isn’t coincidental, but possibly intentional due to what chrysanthemum stands for.
Since ancient times in China, these flowers were believed to give a longevity of good health and fortune by warding away evil spirits. This belief was also brought over to and adopted in Japan. Amongst specific groups, they are deemed valuable and used for important activities, such as in Shintō and Buddhist rituals. There is an old phrase that describes the chrysanthemum as “senkyō ni saku reiyaku¹”, which means “the elixir that grows within the enchanted lands²”. This truly expresses this sense of value the chrysanthemum had in the past.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY
Origins of this festival is said to have 1st passed on as a ritual in China during during ancient times. When it started to become a regularly practiced festival during the start of the Heian period (794~1185) in Japan, it entailed going to designated areas within the Imperial grounds of the Capital and viewing the beautiful gardens that were full of chrysanthemums. This was called “Kangiku no En“ (観菊の宴, Chrysanthemum Viewing Party) or “Kiku no En” (菊の宴, Chrysanthemum Party) for short. Noble families also grew these chrysanthemums on their property as a means to ward away bad luck. Over the centuries, this value for chrysanthemums trickled down to common folks living in different areas of Japan. Due to its wide popularity, it became recognized as an official seasonal festival.
Outside of viewing these flowers, people decorate their surroundings with chrysanthemums. For example, they may be placed on top of certain objects, put inside of a pillow, have petals float on the bath water, or put them in a special pouch within their clothing. Along with its appealing visual appearance, the fragrance from the chrysanthemums are said to aromatic.
FESTIVE FOODS & DRINKS
This festival is not only just about looking at or surrounding yourself with chrysanthemums; like the other seasonal festivals, Chōyō no Sekku also has the custom of consuming specific foods and drinks.
One example is kikuzake (菊酒) , which people would drink as they strolled through those beautiful floral gardens an gazed upon at these flowers In the past. Kikuzake stands for “chrysanthemum wine”, which is made with the actual flower. If placed in a cup, then the actual flower or a few petals would be placed inside to float on the surface. This went along with the celebration, as consuming it in this fashion synonymous to getting eternal life and/or warding evil. In actually, chrysanthemums are filled with nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and Glutathione. Even though these wouldn’t really grant you eternal life, drinking kikuzake would at least help you to stay healthy just for a little bit.
Another is kurigohan (栗ご飯), which is a simple dish of rice with diced chestnuts on top. Like chrysanthemum, chestnuts grow in the Fall. Being a source of food that was gathered in villages in the past, it was used to make sweets. During preparations for Chōyō no Sekku, kurigohan became a popular dish to eat.
With Fall in effect, Chōyō no Sekku is one of the seasonal events that can be participated in different ways, whether through flower viewing, home decor, or through a meal. Take note that while the date from the old calendar may be recognized and referenced, the date on the new calendar is generally followed. As mentioned earlier, this year Chōyō no Sekku will be celebrated on 10/25, but will fall on a different date within October in the following years.
1) 仙境に咲く霊薬. Senkyō refers to the enchanted and often fairytale-like world that sennin (仙人, miracle workers in the form of monks, holy men, wise men) reside in through mysterious powers. Usually regular people who have “evolved” through enlightenment from their studies and training, they visit the human plane at free will. When given a more realistic spin, senkyō refers to areas where these enlightened individuals choose to reside far away from normal civilization, such as mountains and forests.
2) Reiyaku is equivalent to an elixir or miracle drug that is said give a person enteral life. This can also be in the form of a drink. Usually associated with concoctions made with medicinal-like ingredients such as herbs, plants, pure water from the mountains, etc.
Out of the many colorful and visually appealing flowers of Japan, which would be considered Japan’s national flower? Many would consider cherry blossoms (known as sakura¹ in Japanese) due to its popularity culturally and socially, as well as its symbolic use in pop culture. Yet, would you be surprised to hear that it may have a contender for that position, which can be chrysanthemum (pronounced as kiku² in Japanese)? Could it actually be both? For this post, we will look at both cherry blossoms and chrysanthemum’s growing presence from Japan’s ancient past to the modern age of present times, and how they’ve been incorporated into the culture as iconic flowers in their own rights.
BEGINNINGS OF THE CHERRY BLOSSOMS
It is said that cherry blossoms became popular around the middle of the Heian period (794 ~ 1185). At the time, it was dotted on by Emperor Daigo in the use of poetry from the year 905. Before that, a flower that caught the eye of the upperclass was the plum blossom known as “ume” (梅). Researchers have determined this through the review of an older text called “Manyōshū” (万葉集), which features many poetic songs based on various topics including flowers. Many of these songs pertain the word plum blossoms in them. On the other hand, there isn’t at many songs regarding cherry blossoms. Since this book has been actively used among the imperial family years in advance, we get an idea that the cherry blossom’s popularity was initially not as old as one would think.
When appeal shifted in the favor of the cherry blossom, it’s possible that Emperor Daigo’s liking of this flower contributed to this through the following episode. In a 6-volume collection of recorded historical events called Kojidan (古事談), there is an entry regarding the 4th son of Emperor Daigo, Shigeakira (重明), who greatly admired cherry blossoms when he was little. He liked it so much that within his living quarters he had cherry blossom trees grown there. In the Shishinden (紫宸殿), the ceremonial grounds where the children reside within the Imperial palace’s, had plum blossom trees grown all around, which was commonplace. One day, the Shishinden caught on fire and was burnt down, including the plum blossoms trees. In some time it was rebuilt, but in place of the plum blossom trees, Shigeakira moved his cherry blossom trees to inhabit the new Shishinden. It was because of this incident that cherry blossoms grew to be among the Imperial families and noble families.
Eventually, cherry blossoms became popular among the populous throughout Japan. Cherry blossom trees were grown in different regions. Many admired its beauty, as well as its characteristics. For example, after cherry blossoms have fully bloomed, their petals fall off gradually. The falling petals are liken to snow, and if they are present during a snowy day³ they tend to be labeled as “yukizakura” (雪桜). Appreciation for its beauty was often shown as prints on clothing, as well as in ukiyo-e (浮世絵, woodblock painting). Bushi, or warriors of old also took favor of this flower in numerous ways during the Sengoku period (1467~1615), such as likening the wondrous bloom and slow, yet delicate, petal falls of the cherry blossoms to the the short life of a warrior who can claim greatness, yet have his life disappear at a moment’s whim. A popular phrase representing this is the following:
「花は桜木 人は武士」 (Hana wa sakuragi hito wa bushi)
“among flowers, the cherry blossom tree among men, the warrior”
This basically refers to the cherry blossom being the best compared to other flowers, just as the warrior class was viewed as the more superior class of them all.
Cherry blossoms would be used as a sign of nationalism in various ways even by the Imperial army during the Meiji period (1868~1912) onward. This would last until the ending of WWII.
BEGINNINGS OF THE CHRYSANTHEMUMS
Chrysanthemum is a flower which was incorporated into the lifestyle of Japan by those who brought it over from China. This was around the time when the fashion, art, and etiquette of Chinese culture had a great influence in the development of Japanese society. There are different types of the chrysanthemum, which are listed in different ancient Chinese texts such as “Liji” (礼記, Book of Rites). It’s speculated that chrysanthemum was introduced to Japan around the 5th century, close to the ending of the Heian period. It’s 1st appearance within Japanese documentation is said to be in a 25-volume set of historical texts entitled “Ruiju Kokushi” (類聚国史, Topics related to National History of Japan), compiled in 892. One of the well-known lines that mentions it is located on the 11th page within the song verses in the 12th volume, section #715, which goes as the following (accompanied with my own English interpretation):
「己乃己呂乃 志具礼乃阿米爾 菊乃波奈 知利曽之奴倍岐 阿多羅蘇乃香乎」 (Kono goro no shigure no ame ni kiku no hana chirizo shinu beki atara sono ka o)
“Around this time, as the Autumn rain falls on the chrysanthemums they will be scattered and surely die oh so tragic what will befall their fragrance.”
On a literacy level, familiarity with the chrysanthemum can be said to have been among those who were wealthy and educated, such as the Imperial and noble families. It may have been appreciated by them as early as Nara period (710~794). For example, in the Manyōshū there are few poetic songs about it.
Popularity for this flower continued to grow, as the chrysanthemum would later appear within waka-style poetry⁴ in a Heian period book called “Kokin Wakashu” (古今和歌集, Collection from Ancient and Modern Times), which was a text conceived by Emperor Uda (宇多天皇), and later published through the order by his son & successor Daigo. Since it was an Imperial text, it too had great influences on other nobles, who would also grow to appreciate chrysanthemums a great deal.
Chrysanthemum is an Autumn flower, since that is the time it blooms. It was a favorite of Emperor Gotoba (後鳥羽) during the early Kamakura period (1185~1333). So much that it was chosen to be the Imperial crest. It would also gain a good amount of attention during the Edo period (1603~1868) and was shown off throughout many areas in Japan.
THE MANY IMAGES OF FLOWERS
The following are examples of images inspired by both cherry blossoms and chrysanthemums.
Out of the 2 flowers, cherry blossom is greatly beloved by the general public in Japan. Cherry blossom is a Spring flower, which coincides with hanami (花見), or flower viewing festivities which take place early during the same season. During flower viewing, the blooming of cherry blossoms attract the largest crowds, and get a lot of press & advertisements. Some of the attention comes from products promoting it as a flavor for candy, drinks, and so on.
Cherry blossom is visually used in various mediums in pop culture. For example, it is not uncommon to see an exquisite character make an appearance in a scene in one of many anime, accompanied by cherry blossom petals. Or, they may fall and dance around the screen of one of many video games which may have a samurai-like character do an impressive barrage of attacks with a katana.
Chrysanthemum, on the other hand, grows during the Fall. Depending on people’s lifestyle, chrysanthemums are used in different ways. For starters, it is popular flower art and in ikebana (生け花, flower arrangements). There is a type that is also called “shokugiku” (食菊), as it is used as decoration for meals. Chrysanthemum has auspicious meanings, such as longevity and rejuvenation. Thus, one can find it as patterns on kimono, accessories, good luck charms, dishware, porcelain, even on the 50-yen coin. Depending on the occasion, different colored chrysanthemums (minus white ones) are given as gifts.
Chrysanthemums play an interesting role in religious-related activities. For example, there is a national day with Shinto origins called “Chōyō no Sekku” (重陽の節句), that falls on September 9. It is also called “Kiku no Sekku” (菊の節句), or Chrysanthemum Day. It is a festival of happiness. The holiday was established in 910 AD when the first chrysanthemum show was held. In another instance, this flower is used in Buddhist-related traditions for honoring the dead. White chrysanthemums are offered to deceased loved ones’ graves.
While cherry blossoms are viewed as the flower for the populous, chrysanthemum tends to be seen as the Imperial flower. For hundreds of years the Imperial family have decorated their grounds with this, that it was eventually made the official seal to represent them. A special seal called “Jūroku yae Omotegiku” (十六八重表菊, 16-Petal double-layered Chrysanthemum) is used, which was later made forbidden for use by any one other than those of the Imperial family at one point in history. In the 1920s, as a showing of national pride, Japanese citizens are issued a passport with a different chrysanthemum seal on it, called “Jūroku hitoe Omotegiku (十六一重表菊, 16-Petal single-layer Chrysanthemum).
Yet, another example of chrysanthemum emblems can be found in shinmon (神紋), which are special seals that belong to shrines. Just like family seals, shrine seals have been in use for centuries, and vary in appearance depending on the shrine. In this case of the chrysanthemum, there are many types of shrine seals that use this flower, which are still in use today. The same can be said about cherry blossoms being used as shrine seals as well.
Flowers have had a great influence on Japanese society for ages. Cherry blossoms and chrysanthemums are possibly the most iconic, for whether we look back to the past or gaze around us in present times, they both stand out almost identically. There is no clear distinction on which of these two are considered the #1 flower of Japan, but it’s safe to say that, whether you admire one or the other, they both serve their purpose in representing the spirit of Japan.
1) 桜. A much older kanji of this would be “櫻”.
2) 菊. The modern way of writing this kanji (菊) is derived from an older one, which is “鞠”.
3) It wasn’t unusual for some cherry blossom trees to grow during Winter.
4) Waka is written as “和歌” in modern times, but used to be written as “倭歌” in ancient times. They both mean relatively the same thing, “Japanese songs”. Waka consists of unique poetic patterns, which includes tanka (短歌, short poems that follow a 5-7-5 pattern), and choka (長歌, long poems which follow a 5-7-7 pattern). Another name for this style of poetry is Yamatouta (大和歌), which also has the same meaning.
Now that 2020 is upon up, there is much to look forward to in the new year. To get off at a good start, I’ll start off with a post about a tradition connect to new years in Japan.
The 2 center pieces in the picture above are called “kadomatsu” (門松), which translates as “pine decoration by the gates”. More than just decoration, it is part of an old tradition where people would put these in front of their gates or by their doors to attract prosperity and fortune throughout the year from the deity called “Toshigami” (年神). Depending on the area in Japan, people would place the kadomatsu as early as the end of Christmas, to around the start of the oshōgatsu (お正月), or new year in Japanese. This will stay out until seven days after the new year. This goes in accordance to the week-long break everyone has in order to celebrate oshōgatsu in Japan.
The history of kadomatsu is old, with its roots going as far back as ancient China. Originally it starts off with simply matsu, or pine. Pine is resilient during the winter and retains its deep green color. For that, it is seen as a symbol of longevity, and is used at shrines for the sake of worshiping different deities. It would later be combined with take, or bamboo, around the Kamakura period (1185 – 1333). Nowadays, it is widely used in front of people’s gates, around the doorway of homes, and the entrances of business establishments. Historically there are different designs and sizes of the kadomatsu, making it that there is no one predominant look that must be followed.
Matsu (pine) and take (bamboo) have a high value in Japan, as there are many beliefs of blessings people can receive from them. This is because as plants they display strong characteristics, and possess long-lasting lifespan. It’s reasons like these that the kadomatsu, a combination of the two, represents “longevity”.
There is a saying related to the kadomatsu, which goes as so:
“Matsu wa senzai wo chigiri, take wa manyo wo chigiru”
Literal translation is “Pine grants one thousand years, while bamboo grants thousands of years”, but the actual meaning is wishing for an eternal life filled with good fortune. It’s believed that a person can receive this if their kadomatsu is successful as a yorishiro (deity medium) in attracting the Toshigami to reside inside it.
For my family, we brought ours out at the start of new years, and keep them inside our house near the door.
Japan is often recognized for its long culture of deep connection to nature. This can be seen through its influence on how things are labeled in the past, or how it’s presented in haiku and ukiyoe. In modern times, this attention to nature is still preserved. One way this is demonstrated is through phenology to monitor the behavior of climate and seasonal changes, and the effects this has on living things. In Japanese this is called “Seibutsu Kisetsu” (生物季節).
A modern phelonomy dial (現代生物季節ダイヤル). The sections with numbers indicate the months within a year and their seasonal phases. The living things that wrap around in the dial are lined up accordingly to the months they are active. A rather older version of the phelonomy dial, this has many more entries (i.e. types of fish, fruits, vegetables). From the publication “Kishō Nenkan” (issue number unknown).
The practice of monitoring the seasonal effects on the weather, and how living things’ behavior corresponds to this is not only unique to Japan. Interestingly, keeping accurate data in accordance to phenology is treated with a standard of importance; while Seibutsu Kisetsu is an old tradition, the actual recording of this is fairly new. Started in 1953, observation groups (called Seibutsu Kisetsu Kansoku [生物季節観測] in Japanese) were established in different parts of Japan, which contribute on a regular basis each year. Through the use of meteorology (気象庁 kishōchō), key data on timing and behavior of living things in accordance to the weather conditions and how habitats are affected are recorded. This became even more of a necessity due to global warming.
The types of living things monitored was pretty extensive earlier on, but over the years the lists have become streamlined. Currently, vegetation and animals are categorized in Seibutsu Kisetsu, with vegetation including herbs, plants, flowers and trees, while animals consists primarily of birds, insects, and cold-blooded animals. Two categories on the types of living things prevalent in Japan were made: one is the regulated types, and the other is the selective types. The regulated types are those that can be found in any part of Japan, while the selective types are those that can be found only in specific areas.
Ume (flower), “white ume”. Photo taken by Kakidai. From Wikipedia.
Ajisai, “hydrangea of Shimoda”. Photo taken by Yamaguchi Yoshiaki. From Wikipedia.
Tsubame, “Barn Swallow”. Taken by Malene Thyssen. From Wikipedia.
Shiokara Tonbo (male). Photo taken by Shiro 524. From Wikipedia.
Photos of living creatures that are Regulated Types. Click on each one for more descriptions.
Based off of recordings by observation groups, data is constantly compiled annually, consisting of detailed info regarding each of the living creatures’ patterns in Japan since the conception of this system. For example, the specific time when certain flowers began to bloom within each prefecture, or when certain birds migrate from one location to another, are recorded exactly. Each observation group make this information public in their own ways, usually through their own websites. This data is also compiled into a database and maintained by the Japanese Meteorological Agency, which is viewable online.
Nashi, “Pear-Tree”. Picture taken by Katorisi. From Wikipedia.
Deigo (Erythrina variegata). Photo taken by E-190. From Wikipedia.
Tokage, “Pogona”. Photo taken by Tsukitotaiyou. From Wikipedia.
Nihon Amagaeru, “Japanese Tree frog”. Photo taken by Σ64. From Wikipedia.
Photos of living creatures that are Regulated Types. Click on each one for more descriptions.
Here are the current lists of living creatures recorded for the purpose of Seibutsu Kisetsu in Japan. They are separated based on the 2 categories used in the organization process.
– Regulated Types –
Ume (梅) – Japanese Apricot
Tsubaki (椿) – Common Camellia
Tanpopo (タンポポ) – Dandelion
Sakura (桜) – Cherry Blossom
Yamatsutsuji (ヤマツツジ) – Rhododendron Kaempferi (species of rhododendron)
Nodafuji (野田藤) – Japanese Wisteria
Yamahagi (山萩) – Shrubby Lespedeza
Ajisai (紫陽花) – Bigleaf Hydrangea
Sarusuberi (百日紅) – Crape Myrthle
Susuki (薄) – Japanese Pampas Grass
Ichō (イチョウ) – Gingko
Kaede (楓) – Maple (Tree)
Hibari (雲雀) – Skylark
Uguisu (鶯) – Japanese Bush Warbler
Tsubame (燕) – Swallow
Monshiro Chō (紋白蝶) – Small Cabbage White Butterfly
Kiageha (黄揚羽) – Old World Swallowtail (Papilio hippocrates)
Tonosama Gaeru (殿様蛙) – Black-Spotted Pond Frog
Shiokara Tonbo (塩辛蜻蛉) – Common Skimmer
Hotaru (蛍) – Firefly
Abura Zemi (油蝉) – Large Brown Cicada
Higurashi (蜩) – Evening Cicada
Mozu (鵙) – Shrike
– Selective Types –
Suisen (水仙) – Daffodil
Sumire (菫) – Violet
Shirotsume-Kusa (白詰草) – White Clover
Yamabuki (山萩) – Shrubby Bushclover
Ringo (林檎) – Apple
Kaki (柿) – Japanese Persimmon
Nashi (梨) – Japanese/Asian Pear
Momo (桃) – Peach
Kikyō (桔梗) – Chinese Bellflower
Higanbana (彼岸花) – Red Spider Lily
Sazanka (山茶花) – Sasanqua
Deigo (デイゴ/梯姑) – Erythrina Variegata
Teppō Yuri (鉄砲百合) – Easter Lily
Kuri (栗) – Chestnut
Higanzakura (彼岸桜) – Higan Cherry
Ōshimazakura (大島桜) – Ōshima Cherry
Anzu (杏子) – Apricot
Kuwa (桑) – Mulberry
Shiba (柴) – Brushwood
Karamatsu (唐松) – Larch
Cha (茶) – Tea (plant)
Shidare Yanagi (枝垂れ柳) – Weeping Willow
Tokage (蜥蜴) – Lizard
Akiakane (秋茜) – Red Dragonfly
Sashiba (差羽) – Gray-Faced Buzzard
Haruzemi (春蝉) – Spring Cicada
Kakkō (郭公) – Common Cuckoo
Enma Koorogi (エンマコオロギ) – Oriental Field Cricket
Tsukutsuku Bōshi (つくつく法師) – Meimna Opalifera (species of cicada)
Min-min Zemi (ミンミンゼミ) – Robust (Mingming) Cicada
Nii-nii Zemi (ニイニイゼミ) – Kaempfer Cicada
Kuma Zemi (熊蝉) – Type of Southeastern Asian Cicada
Kusa Zemi (草蝉) – Genus Mogannia (a type of Cicada)
Nihon Amagaeru (日本雨蛙) – Japanese Tree Frog
For those interested, here are some sources regarding Seibutsu Kisetsu (phenology) in Japan that are regularly updated: