Looking at Miyamoto Musashi’s First Treatise

Many people are familiar with Miyamoto Musashi’s famous treatise called “Gorin no Sho” (五輪の書), or commonly called “Book of 5 Rings” in English, which was written in 1645. However, in 1641 he compiled another treatise prior to this called “Heihō Sanjūgō Kajō” (兵法三十五箇条), or “35 Rules of Martial Combat”. Being an expert martial artist in the way of the sword, Musashi wrote this upon the request of Hosokawa Tadatoshi, who was a lord over Kumamoto Domain, Higo Province (present-day Kumamoto Prefecture). Believed to be the first recordings of what would later be Musashi’s self-made style “Niten Ichi ryū” (二天一流), the Heihō Sanjūgō Kajō was preserved in the densho of a kenjutsu school called “Enmei ryū¹“, which Musashi himself had a hand in starting.

Recently, as I was reviewing my copy of Gorin no Sho, I decided to also look through the Heihō Sanjūgō Kajō as well. When comparing both documentations, there are similarities as well as differences. There are those that consider the former a “draft” of the Gorin no Sho, and would sign it off for the sake of the more renown version. Some of the reasons behind this include the following:

  • Gorin no Sho is a much longer documentation with more philosophical commentary.
  • Gorin no Sho possesses much more detail on both taking up the part of a martial artist, and the techniques that are related to Niten Ichi ryu.
  • While the Gorin no Sho directly covers Musashi’s self-made style Niten Ichi ryu, the Heihō Sanjūgo Kajō, which is related a great deal, has more of an association with Enmei ryu.

However, I believe that is a premature viewpoint, especially if you are not familiar with the history behind the first documentation and which audience it was written for. Being a treatise on both fundamental and advanced techniques that can benefit a martial artist, Heihō Sanjūgo Kajō would benefit anyone who has interest in this field, even if just as an addition to one’s collection.

Looking at the similarities between both documentations, some of the rules in Heihō Sanjūgo Kajō are also included in Gorin no Sho. However, take note that the wording and/or approach expressing these differ abit between both. Furthermore, although older, Heihō Sanjūgo Kajō contains some interesting perspectives by Musashi. Let’s evaluate this with a snippet from rule #2. I will present below the Japanese, along with my English translation.


② 兵法之道見立処之事   

此道大分之兵法,一身之兵法に至迄,皆以て同意なるべし。

今書付一身の兵法,たとへば心を大将とし,手足を臣下郎等と思ひ,胴体を歩卒土民となし,国を治め身を修る事,大小共に,兵法の道におなじ。

② Analyzing the Path of Martial Combat 

The path of martial combat is the same throughout, from the militaristic system used for large armies, down to the individualistic combative skills.

In this writing I will use individualistic combative skills as an example for the comparison. Such as, one’s head (mind) is equivalent to the commander, the hands & feet are like close subordinates such as retainers. The torso is like the foot soldiers. If, through this idea, one trains the body as if to take over a country, then the path of martial combat is, without a doubt, the same on all levels.


This is an overall comparison of the discipline for the individualist skills honed by a martial artist being the same as that needed for an army to work well and succeed. It’s an interesting one, as it may directly explain how the mindset and approach to martial combat transitioned from the battlefield to individual skirmishes during the Edo period. Take note that rule #2 of Heihō Sanjūgo Kajō is said to be related to the Earth Scroll chapter of Gorin no Sho, yet this doesn’t mean that this is a direct copy of words from one text to another. Anyone who’s familiar with both will notice that while Musashi makes references regarding the discipline of the martial artist is the same as in all professions in that particular chapter, he primarily makes that comparison using carpentry.

The following rules below are a few that offer new and unique perspectives of Musashi’s philosophy. That is, by how they are worded, as they don’t definitely fall into any of the chapters found in Gorin no Sho. Along with the original Japanese and my English translation, I will follow up with my interpretation of the meaning behind the following rules, as best as I understand. Of course, being my interpretation, this doesn’t mean that it is 100% perfect.


⑦ 間積りの事

間を積る様,他には色々在れ共,兵法に居付心在によって,今伝る処,別の心あるべからず。何れの道なりとも,其事になるれば,能知る物なり。大形は我太刀人にあたる程の時は,人の太刀も,我にあたらんと思ふべし。人を討んとすれば,我身を忘るゝ物也。能々工夫あるべし。

⑦ Making Space

There are many points to this, along with needing to be there in the moment and having a presence of mind, in regards to making space around yourself. To explain this clearly hear, you must not have your mind elsewhere or on other matters. Like all paths, in order to achieve this you must have knowledge. The big picture here is to strike the opposition with your sword. To achieve this, one must have the mind of not being struck even by another person’s sword. When you do make the attempt to strike down someone, you must forget about yourself. This takes knowledge and lots of training.


For this, you control enough space around yourself, allowing room to deliver strikes, as well as avoiding any incoming ones from an opponent. When you do go forth with your attack, you must also commit to it and not hesitate, for that will leave the door open for the opposition to react.


⑳ 弦をはづすと云事

弦をはづすとは,敵も我も心ひつぱる事有り。身にても,太刀にても,足にても,心にても,はやくはづす物也。敵おもひよらざる処にて,能々はづるゝ物也。工夫在るべし。

⑳ Releasing the string

To achieve this is to grasp on both the thoughts of you and your opponent. You pull yourself off line of an attack through your body, sword, legs, and mind. You will understand how to evade based on your opponent’s thoughts. This requires lots of training.


This rule is talking about being able to read what your opponent is trying to do. Simply put, one reacts accordingly to each of your opponent’s actions if you can grasp what he/she is planning next.


㉖ 残心放心の事

残心放心は事により時にしたがふ物也。我太刀を取て,常は意のこゝろをはなち,心のこゝろをのこす物也。又敵を慥に打時は,心のこゝろをはなち,意のこゝろを残す。残心放心の見立,色々在物也。能々吟味すべし。

㉖ Freeing one’s Attentive Spirit

This is a method for you to allow things to take their natural course for some time based on the situation at hand. With our sword in hand, our attentive spirit is released as if things are normal, while our mind stays active. Or, as you strike down an enemy in a timely manner, you rest your mind, while staying attentive through intent. There are many points to be aware of when analyzing this. There is much information to gain from this.


In Japanese martial arts a fundamental skill reiterated a lot is zanshin (残心), which can be interpreted as staying attentive when a conflict has been ended. For the rule above, this goes beyond that, where one relaxes mentally yet stay attentive through intent, or vice versa.


㉛ 扉のおしへと云事

とぼその身と云は,敵の身に付く時,我身のはゞを広くすぐにして,敵の太刀も,身もたちかくすやうに成て,敵と我身の間の透のなき様に付べし。又身をそばめる時は,いかにもうすく,すぐに成て,敵の胸へ,我肩をつよくあつべし。敵を突たをす身也。工夫有べし。

㉛ Teachings of the Door

This is about being like a tobaso (戸臍 or 枢, swinging door), where when getting close to the opponent, you quickly make yourself wider in appearance. This creates a distortion regarding enemy’s sword, and the body. It makes it that everything is exposed within the space between you and your opponent. Or, you make yourself a slim form as soon as possible as you propel your shoulder towards your opponent’s chest.


Musashi is describing how to change your body’s orientation, and uses the image of a hinged door as an example. In theory, squaring up with your opponent can be effective in many ways, including psychologically, as it gives the idea that you are a bigger target. Yet, if the enemy strikes, you turn sideways so the attack sails by, which allows you to deliver a counter strike.


Here concludes our discussion on Miyamoto Musashi’s first treatise. While the Gorin no Sho is truly the more popular one worldwide, the Heihō Sanjūgo Kajō is still an active rule set used in certain Japan martial schools that follow in the lessons of Musashi. On top of that, there are publications on this, as well as plenty of websites that cover this in detail in Japan. While a smaller read, I would recommend those serious about martial arts to read the Heihō Sanjūgo Kajō, even just once.


1) Also known as Musashi Enmei ryu (武蔵円明流).

The Ura Behind Kata Geiko

Today’s post is regarding recent kenjutsu training done by Chikushin group. It is more of a reiteration of verbal explanations given to students during those sessions. I also express it here for the public to get an idea of how Chikushin group conducts kobudō training.

In our kenjutsu training we’ve been studying a set of kata that focuses on defeating a stronger opponent. Within this are a few kata that uses the scenario where the both you and the opponent are in tsuba zeri-ai (鍔迫り合い), which means locking swords together by the swordguard. While dependant on the martial system and their philosophy, this can be a common occurance between two sword duelists where both sides close the distance and are trying to overpower the other. Similarly, this can be seen in today’s kendō.

Example of tsuba zeri-ai in a kendō match. From Wikipedia.

When looking at these particular kata as presented in our group, they present a scenario where the defender must use specific techniques to defeat their opponent who uses tsuba zeri-ai. However, before learning these, we must spend time understanding how to properly apply tsuba zeri-ai and win with it. 

In kata geiko (形稽古, practicing pre-set forms), the one who’s applying the technique as the defender may be viewed as doing the “true” style of one’s kenjutsu, while the attacker is not. This is actually not correct. In fact, we have to also study what is being done by the attacker, as it is very critical for the defender’s technique to work. In the case of tsuba zeri-ai, we initially study the finer details of this technique, from how it can occur when two fighters’ swords clash together, to how to properly initiate it ourselves. It is necessary to apply proper timing, leverage, and power in order to overwhelm another through this. In the end, tsuba zeri-ai becomes a tool in our arsenal, furthering our skill level. This is the ura (裏), or unspoken rules, in studying classical martial arts.

There are plenty of unspoken rules not only in kata geiko, but in many of the components found in classical martial arts. It is just more apparent when training in set forms during katageiko as-is, for if we only focus on what the defender is doing, we will only get a small piece of the puzzle. On top of this, one cannot properly defend against an attack that is not there. It is up to the instructor to ensure that students learn the ins & outs of every kata properly. This includes performing a real technique by the attacker role.

Again, in the case of tsuba zeri-ai, if the attacker doesn’t understand how to apply his/her technique correctly in order to lock swords together, the defender won’t be able to feel the pressure necessary in learning the proper rhythm to counter the opponent. It is the same as blocking a simple punch; if we don’t engage in repetitive drills ahead of time regarding how to deliver a punch with proper power, speed, and from an adequate distance, kata that involve defense against this won’t work.

To get an idea of how tsuba zeri-ai is applied in motion, check out our Chikushin Arts Instagram account. There, you’ll find the exact video posted recently from which the pics above were taken from, along with the complete outcome of the scenario that was demonstrated. On top of that, you’ll also find other kobudō-related pics and videos posted regularly to keep our Instagram account active.

Kagami Biraki: Open Up to Good Fortune ~ Part 1

There are many martial arts groups that open the new year in Japan with a ceremony called “Kagami Biraki” (鏡開き). Along with how it’s utilized for the sake of auspicious readings and praying for year-long fortune by shrines and temples, this ceremony is conducted for the sake of good luck during year-long martial training sessions. Its purpose is symbolically significant that my Chikushin group has also adopted this to promote a safe & healthy training year. For this article, we’ll first explore how this ceremony is conducted, by looking at a few events that really illustrate the theme for the new year.

PROCESSION OF THE KAGAMI BIRAKI CEREMONY

Today, Kagami Biraki is used as an opening ceremony for many martial arts groups and organizations. It can be either a small gathering among those who are associated with said group, to a large gathering in a form of a collaboration between different organizations. Well established groups such as Maniwa Nen ryū and Kōdōkan Judō Institute hold this ceremony among their own members, as an example. These smaller events may commence with a speech or formal new year blessing, then followed by technique demonstrations. At the end, there may be  traditional sweets and treats associated with the ceremony that are made available to participants, such as mikan (みかん, mandarin orange). Depending on their tradition, visitors may be allowed to view these groups’ ceremony.

One of the largest, most publicized of these events is “Kagami Biraki-shiki & Budō Hajime” (鏡開式・武道始), which is conducted at the Nihon Budōkan in Tokyo City, Japan. This is an event that has two parts, first being the Kagami Biraki ceremony, then followed by the martial arts segment. Dozens of different martial arts schools, both traditional and modern, participate to present their unique systems.

Let’s look at how Kagami Biraki takes place at the Nihon Budōkan. For the ceremony portion there are 3 parts¹. It starts off with “Yoroi Kizome” (鎧着始め), where individuals dressed in Japanese armor give tribute to the roots of combat to those warriors that fought during warring times. Next is “Sankon no Gi” (三献の儀), where the sōdaishō (総大将, commander-in-chief) does a ritualistic consumption of kachiguri (勝ち栗, dried walnuts), uchi awabi (打ち鮑, dried abalone), and konbu (昆布, kelp) alongside with sake (酒, rice wine) for the sake of gaining luck before going into battle. Finally, “Kagami Biraki” portion takes place, where the sōdaishō uses a small mallet to break the top layer of a kagami mochi (鏡餅, 2-tier decorated rice cake), while his second-in-command officers split the lid on a taruzake (樽酒, barrel filled with special rice wine).  All of this is symbolic, and is considered important to promote the true spirit when engaging in Japanese martial arts.

Next is the training portion, which usually is conducted in the form of demonstrations by each participating group. It is a mix of groups that specialize in modern, sports-oriented styles, and traditional styles. So you may see one group that’ll demonstrate kyūdō (弓道, way of archery), and another demonstrate a version of karate.  There are usually groups that are involved in iaidō (居合道, way of drawing the sword), sōjutsu (槍術, spear techniques), or naginatajutsu (薙刀術, glaive techniques). Over the years, this event had demonstrations of hōjutsu (砲術, gunnery techniques), jukendō (銃剣道, way of the bayonet), and even sumō wrestling. Every year, the participating groups may differ, so there may be variations in what types of styles are presented. After all the demonstrations are over, the floor is open for everyone to take part in hatsu geiko (初稽古, first practice session). A good variety of practitioners, both young and old, can be seen training together. Finally, this ends with an oshiruko kai (おしるこ会, sweet red bean soup event), where everyone can sit together and replenish their energy with this tasty treat.

Screen shot of the hatsu geiko segment. From the video here.

Take note that each Kagami Biraki event has its own date in which it takes place. For the one that is held at the Nihon Budōkan, it’s held on the 11th of January. Unfortunately, this event was canceled due to the precaution against the current pandemic inflicting the world. For those interested, there are vids on Youtube that showcase these Kagami Biraki events. To see the one held at the Nihon Budōkan, I recommend the following video found on Budo Japan Channel, as it covers the explanation in this article very closely.

ENDING

The connection that Kagami Biraki has with Japanese martial arts is considered a deep one. Every year many groups and organizations go to great lengths in organizing events where practitioners can feel they can begin their training in the new year on the right foot. Unfortunately, since a great number of participants are pulled in every year for this, many Kagami Biraki events have been canceled due to the current restrictions. As a substitute, it’s possible that these groups may have performed a smaller ceremony just for direct members.

Be on the lookout of the 2nd art on the topic of Kagami Biraki. In the next one, we will look into the actual history behind this ceremony, look deeper into some of the components that were briefly mentioned, and get an understanding of how it’s celebrated by the general public and through religious establishments.


1) This is carried out by “Nihon Kacchū Bugu Kenkyū Hozonkai” (日本甲冑武具研究保存会). This organization’s name in English is “The Association for the Research and Preservation of Japanese Helmets and Armor”

Understanding Te no Uchi

A topic that often comes up no matter how long a person studies martial arts is what he/she should be doing with their hands during x, or how they should manipulate their weapon during y. These examples are generally related to te no uchi (手の内), which is an important area of training that is introduced to many beginners of martial arts, yet is deep enough in principles that even advanced practitioners continue to work on.

Te no uchi refers to how you wield a weapon in your hands. It is not limited to just how one holds a weapon, but goes as far as how to manipulate it, how to do certain strikes, how one’s hands change grips, how it is held based on one’s posture, and so on. You’ll hear this used for many weapon-based martial systems such as kenjutsu (剣術), kyūdō (弓道), sōjutsu (槍術), and so on. However, it is not just used for when you possess an object in your hand, for te no uchi is also used for hand-to-hand martial systems like karate (空手) and taijutsu (体術), for in essence even a martial artist’s hands are a “weapon”.

Let’s refer to the te no uchi of the naginata. One of the basic te no uchi often taught very early is keeping a consistent grip style with the right hand on top and left hand on bottom similar to wielding a katana. This is reminiscent to how it was used on the battlefield in the past especially in troop formation. Another te no uchi taught is how to switch hand positions, which is important depending on the situation and type of naginata being used. The following example below illustrate this when doing repeated horizontal cuts.

① The initial grip (left pic) is important, as it determines the te no uchi for the right horizontal swing.

② Finishing the swing, the right hand turns the naginata vertically (left pic), from which the left hand slides up and switches place with the right hand (middle pic). Through this a transition to a horizontal swing using the intended te no uchi can be established.

③ Finishing the left horizontal swing, same action is performed again, this time left hand bringing the naginata vertical (middle pic), then switching with the right hand (right pic). Repeat.

This is a step-by-step demonstration on how to achieve this switching of hands in order to maintain a specific reach with the naginata. Of course, as one becomes proficient, this manipulation will become smoother & natural. However, the overall execution of this te no uchi will still remain as long as it’s properly ingrained in the body.

Another scenario concerning te no uchi can be seen during kenjutsu, when two practitioners lock their katana together in tsuba zeri ai (鍔競合い). When the skill level between the two are about even, the one with the better te no uchi can get the upper hand. For example, it is advantageous to understand the moment when to push the opponent’s hands up through the use of one’s tsuka (柄, sword handle), or how to twist one’s hands to utilize the tsuba (鍔, sword guard) to push the opponent’s sword to the side in order to break through their defense, which is possible through the use of advanced te no uchi.

In ending, te no uchi is one of the basics found in Japanese martial arts that is learned very early in training. It’s critical that beginners practice this in order to progress in their respectful martial system. Yet, it is something that can not be forgotten and left behind, as it continues to define a practitioner’s proficiency even in advanced techniques. Thus, te no uchi is a fundamental skill that can be worked on even for a lifetime.

Learning from Coded Instructions

When studying kobudō (Japanese traditional martial arts), you tend to run into many terminology that are coded. This use of wording is a form of encryption to hide the true nature of said lessons or techniques from falling into the hands of a rivaling martial system in the past. In modern times, it is much easier to decipher such jargon due to the openness of martial knowledge by many teachers and avid students. On one hand, these coded words express a lot about the mentality of past Japanese masters based on the environment they lived in, as well as the culture they grew up with, which in itself can be lessons to enrich one’s training.

An example of coded description can be seen in this one line from a document I am currently translating called “Tsuki no Shō” (月之抄), which is a study guide for those who are training in the kenjutsu of Shinkage ryū Hyōhō (新陰流兵法). The line goes as the following:

水月にて 座ト太体之手字ニ身ヲひねり掛ケ 一尺ヲカカへて打へし」

To summarize the line, it outlines how to go about trapping an opponent’s sword. While everything is straightforward, what is not is the part that is in red, which is read as “suigetsu¹”. This is a very common, poetic word that is used within many different fields of interest throughout Japan’s history. A general translation for this would be “water & moon”. In Japanese martial arts it tends to represent the area near one’s solar plexus. However, in the line stated above this would be incorrect. Not to be translated literally, it’s actually interpreted as “when the moon is visible on the surface water”. When read during a description of a sword dueling technique, one would be perplexed as to why this rather flowery, out-of-place visualization is there in the 1st place. Fortunately, after conversing with those who study Shinkage ryū Hyōhō, as well as doing some research on my end, I’ve come to learn that this simple word is actually a coded word for taking proper distance.

Much of what is learned from coded instructions require proper guidance from an instructor, as well as a great amount of training which entails going through trial & error. Just because it is understood that suigetsu refers to distance, distinguishing the point when “the moon is clearly visible on the water” still requires experience. This can be applied to even to the basics of kenjutsu. Let’s take Jōdan no kamae² (上段の構え) as an example. Jōdan no kamae is a universal posture in many martial systems where a sword is held above one’s head. It is considered to be a very strong posture due to being able to deliver a lethal blow to one’s opponent’s head. On the other hand, it is also deemed the most vulnerable, as there is little defense offered for most of the body. Even with these points explained, there are still factors that play a part in how one can take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of Jōdan no kamae. At what range would you get cut if you assume this posture? When can you successfully strike down the opposition through this posture? Actively training and going through trial & error as you put these points to the test will usually provide an answer.

Within the kenjutsu of Kukishin ryū (九鬼神流) which my group studies, are also coded instructions. One of the 1st lessons students learn is the concept of issoku itto (一足一刀), which helps to understand the range where two people’s swords meet. Of course, it goes further than this, as students learn the proper footwork to advance or withdraw in regards to the reach of their swords. Another one can be seen in the kata called kasugai (鎹止). The name for this kata comes from a small interlocking staple-like bolt used to join two pieces of wood together when constructing buildings centuries ago in Japan. For this kata, the idea of “bolting down” one’s opponent is taken from this carpenter’s tool. Of course, the type of footwork, distance and angles required to make this happen requires proper explanation and demonstration in order to grasp this idea.

In conclusion, learning from coded terminology in Japanese martial arts can be a perplexing experience, even when guided by proper instructions. Yet, if one takes the time to understand the reasoning behind it, as well as make use of the visual representation that is part of the Japanese culture, coded instructions can help boost one’s training experience. Of course, this is a case-by-case matter, and depends on whether a practitioner is able to embrace such a manner of instructions.


1) Depending on the martial system, can also be referred to as mizoochi (鳩尾).

2) Depending on the martial system, this kamae is also referred to by different names.

Tōkenjutsu & Universal Lessons Concerning Element of Surprise

Recently I had a discussion with a good friend of mine regarding techniques for throwing bladed weapons. The premise was based off of a text from a book I am currently translating, “Tsuki no Sho”, which discusses principles around the use of Jūji shuriken (十字手裏剣, a cross-shape throwing blade). My friend, who has spent many years training in Shinkage ryu kenjutsu, also mentioned a similar kata, but which instead uses a shotō (小刀, short sword). While size of both are different, using them in an unperceived fashion is important in both scenarios. For this article, I want to discuss a bit about throwing bladed weapons, and how the element of surprise is an imperative tactic no matter the size of the weapon being used. In my training group, the universal term used is tōkenjutsu (投剣術, techniques for throwing bladed weapons).

When learning how to incorporate throwing weapons, whether they are designed for that purpose or not, much of the instructions tend to lean towards psychological warfare. This is especially true when practicing the timing for surprise attacks through kata geiko. Of course, psychological tactics exist for other usages of throwing weapons, such as offensive purposes. Yet, this tends to get limited to specific weapons, whereas tactics for surprise attacks tend to incorporate a broader range of weapons. Due to the nature of attacking with a thrown bladed weapon in an unexpected manner, a level of mental and physical skill is necessary to pull this off.

One of the 1st steps utilizing psychological tactics is through one’s kamae (構え, posture). In Classical Japanese martial arts, this is one of the basics, so a great amount of time is spent understanding how kamae dictates what we do. This is not just a physical matter but one that pertains to attitude. Some kamae are naturally suited for certain scenarios, making it easier to incorporate movements to launch a throwing weapon without being perceived. For example, in a case were one must flee from an opponent who has a katana, one turns around and begins to run. In that movement, we can use a taijutsu kamae called tonsō no kamae (遁走の構え, Escaping posture) to pull out a hiragata shuriken (平型手裏剣, a flat wheel-like throwing blade) from one’s inner pocket. When the opponent is at a certain distance and preps to strike, we turn and throw the hiragata shuriken. Such a tactic like this can help in aiding one’s escape if done correctly, or to attempt to subdue the injured assailant if necessary.

In another scenario, where both combatants are wielding a katana, you may be perplexed with a very strong and skilled opponent. It’s here where you use an unperceived tactic from tōkenjutsu that can grant victory. As your opponent assumes jōdan no kamae (上段の構え, high posture), you follow in suit. As the opponent comes in with a shōmen giri (正面斬り, downward cut to the face), we crouch down and hurl our katana to impale them. Of course, we have a failsafe in case this doesn’t work, which involves pulling out one’s shotō and quickly closing the distance whether our katana hits the mark or not, for the notion of a person suddenly throwing their main weapon (katana) is enough to create a shinriteki na kuzushi (心理的な崩し, mental break). This can cause one’s opponent to hesitate even just for a brief moment, which may be enough to win.

Or, taking a different approach in the previously mentioned situation, you attempt to go toe-to-toe through kumitachi (組太刀, battling out with swords). At some point, you back away, then assume seigan no kamae (正眼の構え, straight-to-the-eyes posture). As your opponent approaches and attempts to swat away your katana, you pull out a small blade hidden on the side of your sword handle. Hurling it as your opponent is distracted, you then finish with an uncontested downward stroke with your katana. Some katana have one or two holes in the tsuba (鍔, sword guard), where small knife-like blades can be placed through. Such a design allows a warrior to have an additional trick up his sleeve, but it’s one which works only if the adversary doesn’t perceive exists ahead of time.

In conclusion, psychological tactics are very effective when throwing bladed weapons. Learning this through kata geiko is common practice. No matter the situation, using the element of surprise is indeed a universal tool handling a bladed weapon that will be thrown no matter the size.

Hobaku: Visual Presentation of Edo Period’s Capturing Methods

In an article earlier this year I covered the numerous listings of Bugei Juhappan, which consist of essential 18 skills key to being a martial artist. In a few of these different versions were skills related to capturing and subduing, which fall under a category called hobaku (捕縛).

Hobaku is a term describing systematized skills for arresting and subduing criminals used by the policing force established during Edo period. Those who worked for the police and were responsible for apprehending criminals were high-ranking samurai and low-ranking warriors. Some of these skills used include torite (捕手), hojōjutsu (捕縄術), and using the mitsu dōgu (三つ道具). These skills originate from groups specializing in bujutsu training, thus training for the sake of proficiency was a must.

There is a famous illustration book called “Tokugawa Bakufu Keiji Zufu” (徳川幕府刑事図譜) published in 1893, which gives a visual presentation of various crimes that were committed during the Edo period, along with the punishment which criminals would face. There are several images that demonstrate how the methods of hobaku were used by those in the policing force, which give an idea why they were deemed important to those versed in martial arts. The scenarios in which hobaku was performed are specific to those involved, from petty theft by a commoner to treason by a nobleman. In some cases the criminal was apprehended discretely, while in other cases the arresting officers had to use force especially when others try to intervene.

For today’s article, select images that represent hobaku will be used to highlight specific skills and weapons listed on some Bugei Juhappan listings. Japanese text found on the top of these images will be posted in type print, and followed by English translations done by myself. To view the entirety of this illustration book, you can access it at the Meiji University Museum by clicking the link here. Note that while there is English provided to understand the contents of the images, the Japanese text on each image has no English equivalent present.


IMAGE #14

BACKGROUND: A temptress, who’s an accomplice of some criminal, weasels her way into the home of a rich merchant. The merchant is tricked into allowing her to stay in his home, while his wife is forced to cook and serve the temptress. The wife and her child are treated poorly, while the merchant is at odds of how to deal with the temptress’ schemes. (reference image #2)

In the picture above, an officer who was informed of the situation makes a sudden entry and quickly apprehends the temptress.

Not bearing his standard ropes, he uses an improvised method where her hands are brought behind her back, with strings tied to her thumbs and attached to the back of her hair.

One can imagine that being subdued in such a method would make any attempts to escape painful.

TEXT ON IMAGE

“In this image, a magistrate is able to make use of a short string, twine, and the like for capturing when a criminal needs to be immediately subdued, but standard torinawa (捕縄, binding rope) is not available. The capturing technique “Tabo*” is applied, where both hands are twisted behind, and both thumbs are joined together tightly.”

*This name is written only in kana, thus meaning is obscure


IMAGE #15

BACKGROUND: The hideout for a group of thieves. After a careful investigation by a constable from the magistrate’s office, a well calculated raid was set into action. This was successful in putting a halt to any further schemes by the thieves. (reference image #3)

In the picture above, the leader of the thieves is arrested. A woman, who’s affiliated with the thieves, tries to interfere with a knife in hand. One of the arresting officers uses a jutte (十手, truncheon) to knock the knife out of her right hand.

Other than their diligent work in completely subduing the main culprit, this image expresses the effectiveness of the jutte’s non-lethal strength.

On a separate note, certain groups had an influence on the jutte techniques used by different policing forces at the time, such as Ikkaku ryū (一角流), Edo machikata Dōshin (江戸町方同心, Edo town officials) and Kyōto machi Bugyō (京都町奉行, Kyoto public authorities). Meiji University Museum has images of the types of jutte used up on their site, which can be accessed through link 1, link 2, and link 3.

TEXT ON IMAGE

“The striking area of the jutte is shown. The jutte is made out of steel. It measures around 1 shaku 5 sun (57 cm) in size. It also has a hook on the side which can be used to stop incoming attacks from weapons such as a sword.

When there are individuals who are willing to prevent the arrest of a criminal due to prior fondness, the 1st thing to do is to strike them in the right upper arm with the jutte. This method of capturing allows an arresting officer to render a target’s dominate arm useless. “


IMAGE #16

BACKGROUND: Illegal gambling is taking place openly in a field. Gangsters and thieves are putting money and goods up for bets. (reference image #4)

In the picture above, policing officials rush the area to break up the gambling ring, and apprehend those involved. They are using standard arresting tools for this, which include the uchikomi (打ち込み, rod with a loop on the end), yoribō (寄棒, baton), and kaginawa (鉤縄, rope and hook).

TEXT ON IMAGE

“(A) To make a capture, a loop is used to snare (a criminal) by the throat.”

“(B) The method for capturing the criminal is used during pursuit. To overtake the criminal, a stick is thrown inbetween his legs to knock him down. “

“(C) The capture here involves prepping a hook. When the hook is attached onto the criminal’s clothing, a rope is pulled against the throat. Utilizing a rope to pull down a person when their limbs cannot be tied is situational-based.”


IMAGE #20

BACKGROUND: A criminal brandishes a sword in order to resist arrest. He is extremely dangerous, and difficult to take alive.

His pursuers attempt to make an arrest in a non-lethal manner by forming a cage around the criminal with four ladders linked together. Others use barbed implements known as mitsu dōgu (三つ道具, 3 tools for arresting & capturing)* in order to pin him down. These are the following:


Tsukubō (突棒, pinning tool)

Sasumata (刺股, immobilizing tool)

Sodegarami (袖搦, sleeve [clothing]-entangling tool)

*Also called torimono dogu (捕物道具, arresting tools)

TEXT ON IMAGE

“When dealing with criminals using martial techniques that make capturing difficult than normal, ladders are utilized to surround their target. From outside of the encasement are those with arresting implements that will be used to subdue the criminal.

The arrangement of the ladders are as shown in the picture. Four ladders are used in the formation where 2 are held sideways, while one is held above and another held below*. This pattern called i no ji (井の字, well formation) can defend against a criminal’s attempts to jump over and escape by being raised higher.

This capturing method involves gradually falling upon the criminal by closing the space in on him. Then they are able to use their arresting tools by thrusting them upon him to knock him down.”

*Description is based on how the ladder formation appears visually in the image. In reality all 4 ladders are on the same level.


These four images give a glimpse of how hodaku was utilized. Keep in mind that as a whole, the specifics of hobaku were considerably vase and layered; while those who were in the policing force were authorized to use arresting techniques, they still had to follow specific protocols related to an individual’s title and/or societal position. As an example, the manner in capturing a commoner could vastly differ to that of an elite family or of samurai status. This included the type of arresting ropes used and how the knots were made.

This concludes the visual presentation of hobaku used during Edo period. As an elementary approach on such a topic, I hope that the contents were informative for all. For those who want to view the entirety of Tokugawa Bakufu Keiji Zufu remember to visit Meiji University Museum’s website, which can be accessed here.

Bugei Jūhappan: The Multifaceted Listings of 18 Weapons

A rather popular list of martial disciplines in Japan is called “Bugei Jūhappan” (武芸十八般). Many martial schools, books, and the like talk about its significance, which has also made its presence to the West. What is the story behind this list? How old is this concept, and how consistent is it? This post will help answer questions like these, as well as provide an overall explanation about certain details that are not readily available in English.

For this post, there’s information both from Japanese sources as well as Chinese sources. A lot of cross-referencing and research was especially done to understand the Chinese information below, and I’m hoping there’s no glaring mistakes, although any corrections are welcomed. Here’s a list of some of the sources used:

ORIGIN AND ROOTS

Bugei Jūhappan loosely translates to “standard 18 martial skills”. Pretty self-explanatory, it is a list of 18 disciplines, primarily weapons, related to martial combat. This is a widely used method for noting what the average martial artists should aim for. However, understand that before this became popular in Japan, this concept was used first in China several centuries prior. 

A portrait of Hua Yue, author of “Cui Wei Bei Zhenglu” (翠微北征録, Northern Expedition of Cui Wei). From zwbk.org.

Within China’s martial and literature culture was the development of a conceptual grouping of 18 skills based on weapons generally called “Shi ba Ban bing qi” (十八般兵器)¹. The 1st source for this was through dramatic performances done from the Song Dynasty to the Yuan dynasty. Here, 18 weapons were mentioned in the lines done by two separate actors, Wang Huan and Jingde. This later would inspire it being used in a 12-volume documentation entitled “Cui Wei Bei Zhenglu” (翠微北征録, Northern Expedition of Cui Wei) by Hua Yue (華岳), which was completed in 1208. Next, several documentations were made during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) which featured their own versions of 18 weapons, which includes:

  • Fictional storybook “Shui hu Zhuan” (水滸傅, The Water Margin), by Shi Naian (施耐庵), sometime in 1300s
  • Illustrated encyclopedia “Sancai Tuhui” (三才圖會, Collected Illustrations of the Three Realms), by Wang Qi (王圻) and his son Wang Siyi (王思義), published in 1609
  • 16-volume “Wu za zu” (五雜俎, Five Miscellaneous Offerings) compiled by Xie Zhao-zhe (謝 肇淛), in 1619
  • 32-volume “Yong-chuang Xiao-pin”  (涌幢小品, Miscellaneous Notes from the Yong-chuang Pavilion) compiled by Zhu Guozhen (朱國禎), in 1621

There are also other sources with their own version of 18 weapons, including the famous Shaolin Temple². Below are examples of the different lists.

Shui hu Zhuan

  • 矛 = mao (spear with snake-like blade)
  • 錘 = chui (hammer)
  • 弓 = gōng (bow & arrow)
  • 弩 = nu (crossbow)
  • 銃 = chong (rifle)
  • 鞭 = bian (iron baton)
  • 鐧 = jian (metal truncheon)
  • 剣 = jian (double-edge sword)
  • 鏈 = lian (three-sectional staff)
  • 撾 = zhua (claw-mounted polearm)
  • 斧 = fu (Battleaxe)
  • 鉞 = yue (crescent moon knives)
  • 戈 = ge (dagger-axe)
  • 戟= ji (spear with 2 crescent blades on the side)
  • 牌 = pai (shield)
  • 棒 = bang (club)
  • 槍 = qiang (Spear)
  • 叉 = cha (Trident)

Wu za zu

  • 弓 = gong (bow & arrow)
  • 弩 = nu (crossbow)
  • 槍 = qiang (spear)
  • 刀 = dao (single-edge broadsword)
  • 剣 = jian (double-edge sword)
  • 矛 = mao (spear with snake-like blade)
  • 盾 = dun (shield)
  • 斧 = fu (battleaxe)
  • 鉞 = yue (crescent moon knives)
  • 戟 = ji (spear with 2 crescent blades on the side)
  • 鞭 = bian (Iron baton)
  • 鐧 = jian (metal truncheon)
  • 撾 = zhua (claw-mounted polearm)
  • 殳 = shu (three-edge spear)
  • 叉 = cha (trident)
  • 耙 = ba (rake)
  • 綿縄套索 = miansheng taosuo (brocade lasso)
  • 白打 = da bai (empty hands)

Here’s another, called “Nine Long & Short weapons of the 18 Weapons” (九長九短十八般兵器), starting with the 9 long weapons

  • 槍 = qiang (spear)
  • 戟 = ji (spear with 2 crescent blades on the side)
  • 棍 = gun (staff)
  • 鉞 = yue (crescent moon knives)
  • 叉 = cha (trident)
  • 钂 = tang (spear with two crescent prongs)
  • 鈎 = guo (hooked weapons, such as hook swords)
  • 槊 = shuo (long lance)
  • 鏟 = chan (spade)

Next, the short weapons

  • 刀 = dao (single-edge broadsword)
  • 剣 = jian (double-edge sword)
  • 拐 = guai (tonfa)
  • 斧 = fu (battleaxe)
  • 鞭 = bian (Iron baton)
  • 鐧 = jian (metal truncheon)
  • 錘 = chui (hammer)
  • 杵³ = huan (iron rings)
  • 棒 = bang (club)
Snapshot of the 18 weapons normally used in theatrical performances. From Arachina.com .

Differences in the lists are due to various factors, such as which were important depending on the time period, land area, groups that had any affiliations, etc⁴. Due to this, there is no one definitive listing, although there tends to be a consistency on which weapons appear on most of these lists.

18 SKILLS OF JAPAN

The concept of 18 weapons as essential disciplines didn’t arrive to Japan until the late mid-1600s, when Wu za zu was 1st published in Japanese. Later to follow were the other Chinese literature mentioned above, such as Sancai Tuhui and Shui hu Zhuan. Chinese literature still had value during this time, so they continued to have influence in Japanese culture.

Picture of Hirayama Kōzō. From the book “Edo no Kengō: Hirayama Kōzō” (江戸の剣豪 平山行蔵)

In 1806, a renown martial artist by the name of Hirayama Kōzō (平山行蔵) from Edo published a book called “Bugei Jūhappan Ryakusetsu” (武芸十八般略説), which served as an adaption of the 18 weapons from the Shui hu Zhuan, but in a way where it fitted with the Japanese methodology towards combat. More than just focusing on a “weapon” (兵器), Hirayama Kōzō used disciplines or skills (武芸) as a means to identify those areas necessary during warring times while on the battlefield, and during peaceful times while in towns and indoors. The development of such a list comes after Japan’s warring history, and during a more peaceful society where martial skills could be structured and represented in a more systematic format.

Just like in China, the listing of 18 skills in Japan is not an exclusive one. There are also variations, each a reflection on what was deemed important in what time period it was made, who was involved in developing such list, and so on. For example, Maki Bokusen (牧墨僊)⁵, an artist who was once a student of the famous Katsushika Hokusai, made a version represented through his ukiyo-e series entitled “Shashin Gakuhitsu” (写真学筆) in 1815. Below are several examples of the 18 weapons listings in Japan.

Bugei Jūhappan Ryakusetsu

  • 弓 = yumi (bow). One type that is iconic is kiyumi (木弓, wooden bow that was common even in early Japanese history).
  • 李満弓 = rimankyū. This represents short bows, such as kujirahankyū (鯨半弓) and kagoyumi (駕籠弓).
  • 弩 = ishiyumi (crossbow). There were 2 types, shudo (手弩, handheld crossbows) and ōyumi (大弓, siege crossbows).
  • 馬 = uma (horsemanship). Refers to bajutsu (馬術, equestrian).
  • 刀 = katana (sword). Refers to kenjutsu (剣術, sword techniques).
  • 大刀 = ōdachi (long sword). This includes nodachi (野太刀, long battlefield sword), and nagamaki (長巻, long sword with an extended handle).
  • 抽刀 = chūtō (drawing sword for cutting). More fitting label would be battōjutsu (抜刀術) or iaijutsu (居合術) .
  • 眉尖刀 = bisentō. Considered a polearm with a smaller blade, liken to a konaginata (小薙刀, small glaive)
  • 青竜刀 = seiryūtō. Considered a polearm with a larger blade, liken to an ōnaginata (大長刀, large glaive)
  • 槍 = yari. This is the spear, with variations including jumonji yari (十文字槍, crossbar spear) and saburi yari⁶(佐分利槍, a spear with prongs for hooking).
  • 鏢鎗 = hyōsō. This is known as nageyari (投槍, throwing spear) and hiya (火箭, fire arrows)
  • 棍 = kon. Generally called (棒, staff)
  • 鉄鞭 = tetsuben. Japanese equivalent would be tessen (鉄扇, iron fan) or jitte⁷ (十手, straight metal tool with a small prong used for arresting)
  • 飛鑓 = hiken (ひけん). Said to be related to fundō kusari⁸ (分銅鎖, chain with 2 weighted ends), kusarigama (鎖鎌, chain & sickle), and koranjō (虎乱杖, staff with a concealed chain)
  • 拳 = Yawara. Also known as jūjutsu (柔術, hand-to-hand)
  • 銃 = ju. Equivalents are teppō (鉄砲, gunnery) and taihō (大砲, artillery)
Select artwork of different weapons in use from the “Shashin Gakuhitsu”. From “Zuzetsu-Kobudōshi”.

Shashin Gakuhitsu

  • 弓術 = kyūjutsu (archery)
  • 馬術 = bajutsu (equestrian)
  • 水泳術 = suieijutsu (swimming techniques)
  • 槍術 = sōjutsu (spear techniques)
  • 鎖鎌術 = kusarigamajutsu (chain & sickle)
  • 薙刀術 = naginatajutsu (glaive techniques)
  • 剣術 = kenjutsu (sword techniques)
  • 居合 = (sword-drawing)
  • 補縄術 = hōjōjutsu (rope-tying a captured opponent)
  • 鼻ねじ = hananeji (baton with a rope used for arresting)
  • 手裏剣術 = shurikenjutsu (small bladed throwing weapons)
  • 鉄砲 = teppō (gunnery)
  • 石火矢 = ishibiya (cannons)
  • 柔術 = jūjutsu (hand-to-hand)
  • 騎射術 = kibajutsu (fighting while on horseback)
  • 甲冑伝 = kacchūden (understanding how to wear armor)
  • 打毬術 = dakyūjustu (cavalry game using a netted pole and a ball, similar to polo)
  • 水馬術 = suibajutsu (crossing rivers, lakes, etc. while on horseback)
An image of dakyū, as illustrated in the book “The Mikado’s Empire (ミカドの帝国)”. From Wikipedia.

Version from the Japanese Dictionary

  • 弓術 = kyūjutsu (archery)
  • 馬術 = bajutsu (horseback riding)
  • 槍術 = sōjutsu (spear techniques)
  • 剣術 = kenjutsu (sword techniques)
  • 水泳術 = suieijutsu (swimming techniques)
  • 抜刀術 = battōjutsu (sword drawing techniques)
  • 短刀術 = tantōjutsu (knife techniques)
  • 十手術 = jittejutsu (straight metal tool with a small prong used for arresting)
  • 手裏剣術 = shurikenjutsu (small throwing blades)
  • 含針術 = fukumibarijutsu (mouth-activated device that sends forth needles, blinding powder, and other concealed items)
  • 薙刀術 = naginatajutsu (glaive techniques)
  • 砲術 = hōjutsu (artillery)
  • 捕手術 = toritejutsu (restraining techniques through grappling)
  • 柔術 = jūjutsu (hand-to-hand techniques)
  • 棒術 = bōjutsu (staff techniques)
  • 鎖鎌術 = kusarigamajutsu (chain & sickle techniques)
  • 錑 (もじり) 術⁹ = mojirijutsu (techniques for subduing criminals by snagging their clothing with a polearm featuring many barbs on one end)
  • 隠形術 = ongyōjutsu (concealment and protection techniques)

This next one is considered a popular version at some point

  • 弓術 = kyūjutsu (archery)
  • 馬術 = bajutsu (equestrian)
  • 剣術 = kenjutsu (swordsmanship)
  • 短刀術 = tantōjutsu (knife techniques)
  • 居合術 = iaijutsu (sword-drawing)
  • 槍術 = sōjutsu (spear techniques)
  • 薙刀術 = naginatatjutsu (glaive techniques)
  • 棒術 = bōjutsu (staff techniques)
  • 杖術 = jōjutsu (short staff techniques)
  • 柔術 = jūjutsu (hand-to-hand)
  • 捕縄術 = hōjōjutsu (rope-tying a captured opponent)
  • 三つ道具 = mittsu dōgu (three arresting tools, which consists of sasumata [刺股], tsukubō [突棒], and sodegarami [袖絡み])
  • 手裏剣術 = shurikenjutsu (small throwing blades)
  • 十手術 = jittejutsu (straight metal tool with a small prong used for arresting)
  • 鎖鎌術 = kusarigamajutsu (chain and sickle)
  • 忍術 = ninjutsu (espionage and sabotage)
  • 水泳術 = suieijutsu (swimming)
  • 砲術 = hōjutsu (artillery)

SIGNIFICANCE IN THE NUMBER “18”

When reviewing these lists, or on a larger scale, how skills are categorized in Japanese martial systems, you’ll notice that there tends to be extra skillsets that are grouped in with others, either as a sub-skillset or a paired one. In reality, there was a much greater number of skills that were essential for warring times, as well as peaceful times. Looking at Hirayama’s list, there are extra weapons based on design, which affect their usage. Also, some categories are broad, and can incorporate more weapons. For starters, teppō is a general term for gunnery, which includes various types of firearms such as rifles, pistols, and the like.

What is the significance of the number ’18’? As far as it can be told, nothing has been discovered. Just how old is this concept when it was first becoming publicly known in China is uncertain; if it goes much further back before 18 weapons was mentioned in those performances, then it’s possible the the meaning has been lost. As it became a standard term among martial artists both in China and Japan, its usage was certainly to outline what a person should strive to be verse in if they wanted to become a complete warrior. Mastery of all 18 skills, along with others not mentioned on those lists, was not expected, since each culture held certain weapons with higher regard than others.

ENDING

This concludes our discussion on the origin of the Bugei Jūhappan, along with its numerous interpretations both in China and Japan. As a concept, it works as a reference to which weapons and skills were deemed important based on the time period. Even today, many martial schools not only reference the Bugei Jūhappan, but also build off of it to express to their students what martial skills are connected to what they are studying.


1) Also written as “Shi ba ban wu yi” (十八般武芸, the 18 skills or martial arts). There is another labeling in the form of “武芸十八事”, but this may be a generic, modernized label.

2) From what I can tell, the “18 weapons” of the Shaolin Temple is more figurative. In reality, the weapons focused on exceed 18.

3) Traditionally written as “環”

4) These weapons, while having historical ties with Chinese culture as a whole, have unique backgrounds for being dotted upon. For example, many of the longer weapons came from dealings with the Mongols, while the shorter weapons were designed for use in local areas like towns. Most of weapons that appear in the Chinese version of 18 weapons are pretty old, and may have been associated to specific families for many generations.

5) Also goes by the name “Gekkōtei Bokusen” (月光亭墨僊)

6) Actually, the proper name for this is kagiyari (鍵槍, hook spear). On the other hand, “saburi” is from the name of a style that specializes in the use of kagiyari, Saburi ryū sōjutsu (佐分利流槍術).

7) also can be pronounced as “jutte”

8) also called kusari fundō (鎖分銅) and manriki kusari (萬力鎖)

9) To speak a little further on this, the word mojiri means to “twist” or “wrench” something using some force. As a hobakugu (捕縛具, arresting tool), one can imagine using this in such manner to control someone if it snags firmly onto their clothing. Another name for sode garami (袖絡み), which has a similar meaning.

Phases of Martial Structuring: Buke shohatto

We’ve arrived to the last part regarding the martial structuring that took place during the generations when Japan still was under feudal rule. Today’s post will be on the “Buke shohatto” (武家諸法度), which was generally seen as a uniformed martial system recognized by all throughout Japan. Unlike the others discussed before, where different factions were influenced to adopt the latest weapons and strategies in order to defeat any opposition that may come their way, Buke shohatto was enforced by the ruling power upon those of the warrior class in a way where the whole populous was affected. In reality, it was but one of many different types of regulations imposed on the people during the Tokugawa shogunate. For this article, we’ll look at the roots of Buke shohatto, its components, and the pros & cons that came with it.

PURPOSE OF A LAW-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT
Buke shohatto is different from what one would expect of a so-called “martial system”. Instead of more of a systematic approach by groups with military strength to defend and fight against others for the sake of land or power, this defines the type of control one ruling power in a military state of a country would possess, and how that ruling power remains dominant, even without the dependency on all-out wars.

Artwork of Tokugawa Hidetada (1579-1632), 2nd Shogun during the Tokugawa shogunate. From Wikipedia.

Generally translated as “Laws of the Military Houses”, Buke shohatto is a set of 13 articles of rules. The groundwork for this was put into place by Tokugawa Hidetada in 1615, based on the command of his father Tokugawa Ieyasu. Tokugawa Ieyasu who, at the time had retired from being Shogun, had introduced these rules to the feudal lords who gathered at a meeting at Fushimi castle in the same year. This period with the 13 rules set place was labeled as Genna rei (元和令, order of Genna period).

Originally in 1611, after Ieyasu had seized power of Japan, he created as an edict with 3 articles of oaths that daimyō (大名, feudal lords) who claimed loyalty to him and the new bakufu (幕府, military government) that was put into place, had to agree to. Later, high-ranking scholars working for the shogunate had presented 10 more rules that daimyō should agree on. Buke shohatto did receive some revisions, amendments, and additions over time, primarily by shogun successors. In the end, these 13 articles of rules were very strict, and had to be followed lest one wished to pay the consequences.

Major objective of creating the Buke shohatto was the following:

  • A means to control both daimyō families and warriors alike
  • Give a framework of a lifestyle individuals were to operate by in an era that was being created
  • Prevent any one group from rising & opposing the shogunate


13 REGULATIONS
Below are the original 13 regulations of the Buke shohatto¹. These are several pics of the rules in Japanese, followed by a modern translation in English. The translation comes from the Buke shohatto English page on Wikipedia.


  1. The samurai class should devote itself to pursuits appropriate to the warrior aristocracy, such as archery, swordsmanship, horsemanship, and classical literature.
  2. Amusements and entertainments are to be kept within reasonable bounds and expenses for such activities are not to be excessive.
  3. The han (feudal domains) are not to harbor fugitives and outlaws.
  4. Domains must expel rebels and murderers from their service and from their lands.
  5. Daimyō are not to engage in social interactions with the people (neither samurai nor commoners) of other domains.
  6. Castles may be repaired, but such activity must be reported to the shogunate. Structural innovations and expansions are forbidden.
  7. The formation of cliques for scheming or conspiracy in neighboring domains must be reported to the shogunate without delay, as must the expansion of defenses, fortifications, or military forces.
  8. Marriages among daimyō and related persons of power or importance must not be arranged privately.
  9. Daimyō must present themselves at Edo for service to the shogunate.
  10. Conventions regarding formal uniform must be followed.
  11. Miscellaneous persons are not to ride in palanquins.
  12. Samurai throughout the realm are to practice frugality.
  13. Daimyō must select men of ability to serve as administrators and bureaucrats.

On a martial arts-related note, daimyō families were able to train in martial skills while getting adequate education. Despite this privilege, the reality was many were busy with actual work or recreational activities, with very little chance to hone their skills in true confrontations. While they could still be formidable with a sword in their hands, their actual skills paled in comparison to the warriors of the warring age.

HARDSHIPS OF THE DAIMYO
As stated earlier, many influential families were allowed to became daimyō and own land. Due to their background, these families were privileged with the title “buke”, or warrior families, thus placing them in the “samurai” class. Take note that the term buke (military families) was not directed towards vassals to the shogun, nor warriors of the many domains. The former were called hatamoto (旗本), whereas the latter were labeled as hanshi (藩士). There were specific rules for them to follow, which will be discussed later.

Back on topic, the Buke shohatto kept daimyō families in check. For example, daimyō families received pay from the government in the form of koku (石), or bushels of rice. This was also payment by the daimyō families to those who worked for them. However, these families had to pay the bakufu in taxes, which was rice harvested in each families’ domains. Depending on certain factors, if output of rice was too low, then more taxes was placed on those specific families. This was a huge burden on many daimyō families, which prevented them from becoming too financially strong.

Another example is their travels to Edo (present day Tokyo) and visits to the Shogun while doing work there. On a yearly basis, at least one trip had to be made per the head of the household’s responsibility. Costs for this trip was expensive, and they were not given funds or compensation for making the journey. Furthermore, they had to follow certain protocols while making the trip to Edo. For instance, they could only be accompanied by a certain number of followers and horses according to their rank. This could pose a problem if their luggage, items, cargo, and so on was large while the traveling group had fewer members. The limitations on the numbers allowed to travel was to prevent attempts on taking over Edo, starting a war, etc.

WORKING AS A WARRIOR
As mentioned earlier, there were specific rules and regulations set aside for warriors that were not considered a “buke”. Some factors distinguished this, including receiving an income of jūman koku, or 100,000 bushels of rice. These rules are called Shoshi hatto (諸士法度), or otherwise known as Hatamoto hatto (旗本法度). This set of regulations surpasses the Buke shohatto in numbers, as there was 23 rules in total.

These regulations were first drafted in 1632, initially featuring 9 regulations. Later, this would be increased to 23 regulation in 1635 by Tokugawa Iemitsu, which is often the reason why most of the credit of its development goes to him. The intentions of the Shoshi hatto was to give warriors who worked for the shogunate and the daimyō families rules on how to conduct themselves in the new era being created by the Tokugawa shogunate, as well as give a framework of behavior and development they should aim for. In return, they receive an honest amount of compensation in the form of koku (rice). Of course, this gives warriors of all types an indication of the need to be employed in one way or another to benefit from this.

Two pages illustrating the regulations of the Shoshi hatto, from the book “Shiho Shiryo – Dai 170-go Tokugawa Kinreiko” (司法資料. 第170号 徳川禁令考)

Warriors that were employed as vassals (or otherwise known as retainers) directly under the Shogun were called hatamoto (旗本), while hanshi (藩士) that served directly under a daimyō were given the more proper title of gokenin (御家人). As one would expect, hatamoto are viewed as high-ranking warriors, since they answer directly to the shogun and can have an audience with him directly. gokenin are lower ranking warriors, as they don’t work directly with the Shogun. Also, hatamoto receive a higher stipend of koku than gokenin.

Having 23 regulations that needed to be observed and follow, there was a lot of pressure for these vassal warriors. The general premise that these regulations impose are the following:

  • Upholding loyalty
  • Maintaining a level for military service
  • Being ready for use of weapons and tools for war
  • Starting a family through marriage
  • Being mindful of one’s actions and conduct
  • Keeping good communication
  • Avoiding unnecessary quarrels
  • Understanding who takes responsibility during fires
  • Dealing with wrong doers and law breakers
  • Responsibilities on one’s fief
  • Handling boundary disputes
  • Correct protocol in handling territorial matters relating to political issues and regular civilians
  • Family management as head of his family

As mentioned before, the Shoshi hatto was separate from the Buke shohatto up until around 1683, which afterwards it became obsolete. Most of the regulations placed on vassals were consolidated and merged with the Buke shohatto at a later date.


PROS & CONS OF BUKE SHOHATTO
Now, let’s take a broader view of the Buke shohatto and how well it worked in allowing the Tokugawa shogunate to maintain rule and suppress any possible threats. There was obviously good points that came of this.

PROS

  • Unnecessary wars and conflicts were almost quelled completely.
  • A push for social and economical development could be seen over a course of time as many found new ways to survive through the form of business and constructive work, especially through contact with and the adaptation of technologies from Western countries.
  • Certain main roads necessary for travel by daimyō, tax collectors, inspectors, and so on were ordered to be developed by the shogunate. These roads being made accessible contributed to smooth relay of communications, delivery of supplies, and so on. In turn, these same roads were safer (at least during the day) and more frequently used by others such as merchants, monks, and regular civilians.
  • Piracy, as well as monopoly of the waterways was prohibited. This also included the construction of very large ships. In the end, seaports were developed for fair use and labor/transportation purposes
Artwork entitled, “Suehiro gojūsan tsugi Totsuka” (末廣五十三次 戸塚), this is a visual interpretation of a procession to Kyōto along a main road called Tōkaidō by the 14th shogun Tokugawa Ieshige, on his way to see the Emperor. He is accompanied by around 3000 armed attendants. By Utagawa Sadahide, produced in 1865. From ukiyo-e.org.

CONS

  • Certain measures were put into place to ensure obedience from daimyō. While effective in the grand scheme of things, ethically they are questionable. For example, daimyō had to comply with a system called “Sankin Kotai” (参勤交代), which basically was an agreement where as they did work for the Shogunate, one or several of their close relatives, such as wife and kids, had to live in Edo. Since these relatives were under surveillance, they were essentially prisoners. Any rash actions from the daimyō would put their lives at risk, so they had no choice but to be obedient.
  • A restriction was placed on the number of castles daimyō could own. Under the regulation called “Ikkoku Ichijo rei” (一国一城令), they were permitted to own only one castle in each land area. The reasoning behind this was to prevent the building of military strength by accumulating a large force, weapons, and supplies in a remote castle, or house them in a fort close by on their land. This was also to dissuade cooperation between different daimyō to join forces. In the process, many historical castles, forts, and the such had to be demolished.
  • On a larger scale, the Tokugawa Shogunate could not ensure complete peace and safety throughout Japan; while the Buke shohatto was to take care of this by leaving such management in the hands of the daimyō, in the long run there were still areas that were left unchecked or could not get full support just because the Shogunate wasn’t designed to do so.
  • As a balance measure for paying daimyō and others on a yearly basis, taxes were placed on everyone. These taxes came from the rice harvested in each area. Depending on their status, each daimyō had to deliver a certain amount. However, this did not take into consideration on certain factors, such as actual man-labor to produce the set amount, as well as if harvesting conditions were bad due to droughts and so on. This placed a lot of pressure on both the daimyō and the people on his land, which in turn influenced some to bribe tax collectors that would come visit their lands.
  • Lack of true financial support overall. For the most part, if areas needed any form of development, such as the construction of bridges, this was placed in the hands of the daimyō of that specific area.
  • Masterless warriors, such as rōnin (浪人) did not get the same support as retainers to the Shogun and daimyō did. In fact, they had to fend for themselves for the most part, with their focus being more on finding actual work. One route that could be taken was trying to set up their own legitimate martial arts system and open up a school in a particular area. For others, acquiring work that could use their talents, such as bodyguard, guardsman of a manor, police, investigator, an instructor, and so on. Labor work was aplenty throughout Japan as many towns were growing, so if these warriors could make the journey to areas where large projects were being conducted, then there was a chance to gain employment, if only for a short period of time.

There are other cases, both positive and negative, but those will continue to carry us further off topic. At the same time, this shows the impact that the rule-heavy society created by the Tokugawa shogunate had as a whole, as its influences reached much further off of the battlefield and into the reality that was becoming of Japan from the Edo period onward.

CONCLUSION
Buke shohatto is the last form of martial system of Japan when it was still a military country. It ended once the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown by those wanting to return power to the Emperor in the late mid-1800’s, ushering a new, modernized governing system. This here closes the series on the martial structuring in Japan’s history. Much time was spent researching each part of this series, so it took longer to bring to completion than expected. I thank everyone for their patience.


1) To view the different iterations of the Buke shohatto, Shoshi hatto, and other regulations devised within the Tokugawa Legislation in English, there is a web archive that is currently accessible here.

Revisiting Measurements for Training Weapons

In a previous post from a few years back, I spoke about the importance of measurements for one’s weapons according to the martial system being studied. There, it was mentioned how necessary it is to wield weapons that have proper dimensions according to our body type when we are beginners. For this post, we will take this same subject and look at it from another perspective, where I discuss about the strong points of training with weapons of irregular dimensions in kobudō (古武道, Classical Japanese martial arts) as an advanced student.

PROCESS OF HANDLING WEAPONS OF UNCONVENTIONAL LENGTHS

When first starting out, a student is required to acquire training weapons that fit their body type in order to study the lessons correctly. After some time has passed where the student has become familiar with a particular weapon of a standard length, they should next come out of their comfort zone and handle one of a different length. Sometimes this can be impromptu during class, or other times the focus of the lesson can be placed on this point. There are many reasons behind this. For starters, to further understand the principles for said weapon, whether it be a sword or staff, one has to be exposed to conditions that teach us lessons that go beyond just the physical. Distance, timing, and positioning are just some of the principles that require being explored under not-so-usual conditions.

An example of bokutō (wooden swords) of different lengths

For starters, against an adversary with a sanjaku dachi (三尺太刀, a Japanese sword that measures about three feet), a rokushaku bō (六尺棒, six-foot stick) provides a great reach that allows the wielder to perform ashibarai (足払, leg sweep) from a safe distance. Yet, when given a sanjaku bō (三尺棒, three-foot stick), you won’t have the same advantage as before. Still, with further training and having a deep understanding of the principles of one’s art, you can still perform an ashibarai to defeat an opponent without getting cut down.

USING DIFFERENT WEAPONS TO LEARN SAME SKILLS

Sometimes the same set of kata for one particular weapon is used to teach how to use another weapon even if it’s a different size. This is another challenging point that can further support an martial system’s ideology across a different span of weapons. For example, some traditional schools in Japan have used the kata for the naginata as a means to learn how to wield the yari. Others have used the kata for the katana to understand how to utilize the kusarigama. each of these weapons have unique traits that provide interesting results, especially in the case of the kusarigama; a sickle with a flexible chain & weight takes a great amount of understanding and control if pitted in the same scenario where a katana would be used.

Next, there are those kata where one performs with a katana, but then later does it with a much longer sword like an ōdachi, or with a much smaller one like a kodachi. All three are categorized as swords, but with varying lengths. For an advanced student, one of the greatest challenges here is understanding the strengths & weaknesses of the weapon in hand, and how it affects not only the control (or lack of) they may gain, but also how their opponent will react based on how each weapon is manipulated.

IDEA OF ANYTHING AS A WEAPON

When an adequate amount of training has been put in, an advanced student should begin to develop the ability  to use anything that comes into hand. Looking the development of different martial systems in Japan’s history from the 1500s onward, many incorporated the study of multiple weapons in the form of sōgō bujutsu (総合武術, martial system featuring numerous disciplines). This not only encouraged bushi (武士, warriors) to be familiar in many different skills, but to be resourceful enough to use anything that they could get their hands on, including their opponent’s own weapon. The same mentality remains in various martial arts schools even today.

Many countries have very strict laws against carrying weapons, even those for self defense purposes. While it may seem impractical to study classical systems that specialize in the use of the yari, kusarigama, and so forth, this isn’t truth. Much of what is learned can be applied to common tools and items we find around ourselves everyday. An umbrella substituted for a sanjaku bō, a shovel used in place of a yari, or even a belt wielded like a kusarifundō are but examples of adapting one’s training for self-defense in today’s contemporary world. With a thorough understanding of the principles necessary for this through consistent training, it is possible to naturally use any common item in your environment as a weapon without getting caught up in small details such as being the “correct” length with the iaitō used in training, and so on.

ENDING

In conclusion, working with weapons of different dimensions during training has its merits for advanced students. This can range from handling same-type weapons of varying lengths to using a specific to learn another different weapon type. In the end, a student should be able to go past form & structure of a particular weapon and grasp a deep understanding of the principles behind what make it work. Achieving this, that student will be able to reach the outcome they so desire despite the length of said weapon being slightly off of what would normally fit their body type.