Looking at the True Sanada Yukimura ~ Part 2

We continue with part 2 regarding the true image of Sanada Yukimura. In part 1 we established that his real name was Nobushige, took a brief overview of his historical bio, and examined the source behind the label “Yukimura” along with the idea behind it. In this post we will look at the fictional side spurred on by the Yukimura image, and how real life accounts fit into this. Take note that when addressing non-academic source materials such as movies and novels, one should not automatically assume that these are completely false info which can can be discarded in a blink of the eye. Depending on the author/director’s intentions, these could very much follow along accurately with historical events in order to make a solid and entertaining story. They may even contain info that tends to be difficult to find. However, what is important is to recognize which points are fiction in these works, and how to discern the correct info that can be compared to factual sources.

PERSONALITY OF A HERO

A common image of Sanada Yukimura in today’s generation.

When analyzing the image of Sanada Yukimura, we see him represented as one of Japan’s greatest war heroes. This is in part to how he’s portrayed in novels, shows, and movies, both old and new. Depending on the literary work, Yukimura is given a personality that portrays him as stoic, righteous, and heroic figure. This is common especially if the individual is the main character. He is usually depicted as one who stands by his principles and doing whatever it takes to ensure victory, especially for the Toyotomi family. In instances regarding the Osaka Campaign, Yukimura is shown leading his troops head-on into the thick of battle, while in others he is resourceful with carefully analyzed plans that lead to successful outcome. One of the themes that is considered memorable is him commanding his elite warriors and having them operate as kagemusha (影武者, body double) of himself, which was a deceptive tactic to disrupt the enemies’ focus and lower their morality as they get overwhelmed dealing with multiple “Yukimura”.

Take this as an example. In the novel “Chōbō Sanada Yukimura” (智謀真田幸村), Yukimura is shown to be ever protective of his master, Hideyoshi Hideyori after the defeat during the Osaka Campaign. As an escape to Sasshū Province (western part of present-day Kagoshima prefecture) has been established, he is portrayed saying the following lines to a fellow comrade named Gotō Matabei¹:



“…今日評定の席にてあのようにもうしたものゝ、ねがはくば御身は討死を止まっていただきたい”

…considering things from where I stand right now, I want to prevent my lord from dying in this war, if granted such an opportunity”


“そのうえ時節をまって島津家において人数をまとめ、ふたゝび豊臣家を再興せんと言う所存、よって貴殿は誰れか影武者をもって、表面討死をいたしたと言う体裁になしくださるよう”

”On top of this, my thoughts are to gather a number of people, and have them reestablish the Toyotomi clan through the help of the Shimazu (Shimadzu) clan. Through this, I would want to have someone play your double, and then have him die in (the next) battle where everyone can see.”


To the very end, Yukimura dedicates his life in preserving the true Toyotomi line, even when the odds are surely against them. Establishing a new Toyotomi family, and using doubles for certain individuals that would continue the fight and eventually die at the hands of Tokugawa Shogunate would stop any pursuers coming for them. As impressive as this may sound, this is just a novel. Yet, this also goes in hand with the narrative regarding him avoiding death and managing to survive Osaka Campaign.

ADDITIONAL/SUPPORTIVE CHARACTERS

In fictional works there tends to be characters that don’t have a real historical presence, but used for the sake of the story. In the various novels that feature Yukimura, there are cases of this, sometimes being minor individuals who help to fill in the gaps where history leaves open. Other times a real figure is used to model a new character placed in the story. Since literary works regarding Sanada Yukimura were stated to be based on true events in the past, like many other novels of its kind, future generation may inadvertently mistaken fictional characters as to being actual people.

A collage of thumbnails depicting the Jūyūshi (10 brave warriors) who served Yukimura, drawn woodblock-style. From “Ueda City Digital Archive Portal Site”

Other than Yukimura himself, possibly the largest example of fictional characters is found in the “Sanada Jūyūshi” (真田十勇士), which is a label given to 10 brave warriors representing families that were allies to the Sanada clan. The appearance of this Sanada Jūyūshi is often attributed to “Sanada Sandaiki” (真田三代記), a Sanada-supportive narrative produced in the Edo period. Although viewed as fictional, these characters grew in popularity and appeared in modern-day novels, manga, movies, and the like. Some of the individuals even appeared in works centering about them, which further developed their background story to the point where they sound like they truly came out from the pages of history. The following is a list of the those individuals of the Sanada Jūyūshi²:

  1. Sarutobi Sasuke (猿飛佐助) – a famous ninja employed by the Sanada clan, he is said to be the student of the legendary Koka ryu ninjutsu master named Tozawa Hakuunsai.
  2. Kirigakure Saizō (霧隠才蔵) – a ninja who was the student of Momochi Sandayu, lord of one of the 3 powerful families of Iga Prefecture.
  3. Miyoshi Seikai Nyūdō (三好清海入道) – A monk employed by Yukimura who is renown as a hero fighting to his death during the Osaka Campaign.
  4. Miyoshi Isa Nyūdō (三好伊三入道) – Younger brother of Sekai who was also a monk, and hailed as a hero dying in battle during the Osaka Campaign.
  5. Anayama Kosuke (穴山 こすけ) – A dedicated retainer of Yukimura, he played the double of his master during the Osaka Campaign.
  6. Yuri Kamanosuke (由利鎌之助) – Once a retainer Toda Suganuma, he switched to the Sanada side after the Toda were defeated in battle.
  7. Kakei Jūzō (筧十蔵) – From the Kakei family, allies of the Sanada clan. Apart from Jūzō, other members of the Kakei family also appear in different Sanada-related stories.
  8. Unno Rokurō (海野六郎) – A fellow kinsman, as his family line is from where the Sanada line originates from.
  9. Nezu Jinpachi (根津甚八) – Once a pirate for the Kuki navy, he later becomes a retainer of Yukimura. His family line, like the Sanada line, also originates from the Unno line.
  10. Mochizuki Rokurō (望月六郎) – A mysterious ally of Yukimura who specializes in explosives. Rokurō is also known under different titles depending on the story he appears in.

Note that while they make up the Jūyūshi due to their inclusion in various works as allies of Yukimura since as early as the Edo period, this wasn’t an official title for them until sometime in the late 1800s to early 1900s. Some other things worth mentioning is that while these characters are deemed fictional, most of them are considered to have been inspired by actual people from history. For example, the concept of Sarutobi Sasuke is believed to have been based off of one of several different individuals whose names appear in different texts. The most popular theory is Sarutobi Nisuke³ (猿飛仁助), who is said to have been a thief hired to assist in the “Battle of Kanegasaki” (金ヶ崎の戦い) by a Kinoshita Tokichirō (木下藤吉郎) in 1570⁴. In another example, Miyoshi Sekai and his brother are believed to have been modeled after Miyoshi Masakatsu (三好政勝) and his family. Masakatsu became head of the Miyoshi clan and served under Hosokawa Harumoto after his father, Miyoshi Masanaga (三好政長), retired.

RED ARMOR

A staple that will probably be forever associated with Sanada Yukimura is red armor. This is something Yukimura and his troops donned on right before the Osaka Campaign. The concept of wearing red armor is thought to be intimidating due to its fiery color. It’s said that it has such a psychological effect on his enemy Tokugawa Ieyasu that his umajirushi (馬印, a battle flag on a pole inserted into a slot on the back of one’s armor) fell down, which is said to be a bad omen. Yukimura is, with no hesitation, depicted in red armor in novels and visual in artworks from Edo period. Due to these, the trend continues in modern times. This association to the red armor is not limited to Yukimura, for the Sanada clan as a whole is included as well.

News article regarding the discovery of red armor, possibly related to the Sanada clan. From Sankei News.

Of course, this claim of red armor doesn’t come without critical disputes. One of the more recent claims is that the Sanada red armor is just as much as a myth as the name Yukimura, for this famed red armor of his (Nobushige’s) has yet to be claimed and placed in a museum. One argument is that the actual armor that Nobushige wore was found, and that it was actually black. Another argument is that within certain households in Japan that have some form of link to the Sanada clan have preserved these old red armor, but the color is not a vibrant red but a dull brownish-red color. Considering how wars in the past were conducted, it is not unusual for certain things like armor to have been taken by the victor, or lost during the chaotic fray. Interestingly, in 2017 there was an article in a Japanese newspaper regarding family in Nagano, Japan coming forth with what looks to be the remains of a very old red armor, along with an aged note stating it was the possession of the Sanada clan. It was up on display at the Sanada Hobutsukan (真田宝物館, Sanada Sacred Treasures Museum) that same year.

As a side note, the idea of wearing red armor isn’t an original concept by the Sanada clan, nor was a it a rare sight. Historical sources point to the warlord of Kai province, Takeda Shingen, as being the first to devise this strategy around the mid 1500s. It’s said of intimidation the opposition with this type of color. Shingen had a designated team of soldiers wear red armor in order to catch the enemy force’s eyes and instill fear as they rushed into battle. It is from here which Sanada Masayuki (Nobushige’s father) adopted the idea of red armor within his clan. Whether or not members of the Sanada clan donned on red armor prior to the events in Osaka Campaign is still up for debate, but there is one evidence that points to this as being a thing. In Hirayama Masaru’s book “Sanada Nobuyuki: Chichi no Chiryaku ni katta Ketsudan-ryoku” (真田信之 父の知略に勝った決断力), he reveals that when an order from Toyotomi Hideyoshi came regarding being prepared for military service in 1593, Sanada Nobuyuki (Nobushige’s older brother) replied that the warriors of the Sanada clan were always ready to serve while donning on red armor. Years later, during the Battle of Sekigahara a retainer of Tokugawa Ieyasu known as Ii Naomasa (井伊直政) also adopted the idea of wearing red armor and outfitted his troops the same way. What’s unique in this is that he was a comrade to Nobuyuki, who at the time sided with the Tokugawa-Eastern forces as ordered by his father Masayuki as a means to ensure the Sanada line survives no matter which side wins.

SANADA = NINJA?!?

Since the Edo period all the way to the present, the Sanada clan is presented as heavily associated with ninja. Employing a large number of these shadowy figures, ninja from both the regions of Iga and Koga are portrayed as serving Sanada members like Masayuki, Nobuyuki, and Yukimura. While it starts off small in earlier works in the Edo period, this image became more pronounced in later works such as novel Sanada Sandaiki, where all 10 members of the Jūyūshi are ninja or related to a ninja. This even lead to more focus on the ninja theme in modern works, including movies such as “Ninjutsu Sanada Jūyūshi” (忍術真田十勇士) and “Sanada Fuunroku” (真田風雲録), as well as 2016 drama “Sanada-Maru” (真田丸)⁵.

What is the reason behind this large focus on ninja being employed by the Sanada clan? Is it just a ploy to bolster the image of Yukimura (Nobushige), which in turn developed into its own entity entirely? In some ways, yes. However, this is not a baseless creation or idea. There are records that point to the Sanada clan having a working relationship with different groups that specialized in the fundamental skills that would become what we call “ninjutsu” in modern days. According to some, the Sanada clan are also said to have engaged in ninja-like activities themselves. The root of this is generally connected to Takeda Shingen and when he was ruler of Kai Province during the early-mid 1500s. Shingen is recorded as utilizing not only a network of different groups taking part in espionage and information-gathering, but establishing an in-house system of ninjutsu, which a select number of his generals were privy to learning in order to assist in maintaining it. At the time, Sanada Yukitaka (Nobushige’s grandfather) was serving Shingen and not only had knowledge of utilizing ninja, but is said to have taken part in ninja-like operations. Yukitaka’s son Sanada Masayuki would continue this as one of the 24 top generals of the Takeda clan. In fact, some claim that after Takeda Shingen’s death and the fall of the Takeda clan, Masayuki would keep up this network of utilizing ninja.

One piece of evidence for this is found in an old historical memoir called Kazawaki (加沢記), which is an account of activities that took place in areas around Kosuke Province (present-day Gunma prefecture) during the 1500s. Ninja-like groups from Higashi Agazuma area (東吾妻方地) are written to have been utilized by Takeda Shingen and members of the Sanada Clan. This is significant due to Higashi Agazuma area featuring densely wooded routes that were used not only by the local ninja, but it said that members of the Sanada clan also had access to these as well.

A genealogy chart of the Yokotani family. On it is the name of Yokotani Sakon (Shigeuji), circled) who was a ninja employed to the Sanada clan. From the book “Sanada Ninja no Matsuei” (真田忍者の末裔)

This leads to the famed Yukimura and his Jūyūshi. The ninja members such as Kirigakure Saizō have been identified as fictional characters. Claims are that they were inspired by real life figures who may not have actually had any connections with Yukimura. Yet, could it be that there were actual ninja working closely to him? There is one that is worth mentioning. Sources point to the Yokotani family (横谷氏), who are said to have been ninja from Shinano Province (part of present-day Nagano Prefecture). While there is not a lot of info on them, it is believed that they were active throughout the 1500s to about the early 1600s as members of a ninja group from Agazuma area, who were under the employment of Ideura Morikiyo (出浦 盛清), a vassal of the Sanada clan. Notable members are Yokotani Yukishige (横谷幸重), who is said to have served Sanada Nobuyuki (Nobushige’s older brother), while his younger brother Yokotani Shigeuji (横谷重氏) had served Nobushige. Shigeuji, who also went by the title “Sakon” (左近), died during Osaka Campaign, just like others who were serving Nobushige during the battle. Some researchers believe that Yokotani Shigeuji could have inspired the idea of Sarutobi Sasuke, but this hasn’t been proven yet.

So the idea of a ninja employed under Nobushige, fighting during the Osaka Campaign, and dying as possibly a kagemusha for him is a strong possibility. On top of that, with the Sanada clan’s deep connection with utilizing ninja groups, it can be understood why they are presented the way they are. However, it is too far of a stretch to say everyone around Nobushige was a ninja, and that the Jūyūshi were composed entirely of them. See, when you have a forced portrayal of Miyoshi Seikai Nyūdō being the son of the fictional thief ninja Ishikawa Goemon as depicted in Shibata Renzaborū’s novel “Sanada Yukimura~Sanada Jūyūshi” (真田幸村~真田十勇士), it’s hard not to say that this is due to the popularity of ninja in modern society.

CONCLUSION

Here we conclude the discussion on this famous hero. In ending, writing about Sanada Yukimura (Nobushige) is a tough topic to pick up and try to address from a historical point of view. To be exact, this was a several months-long project, which included acquiring a Sanada-related books, reading through well-known novels, researching historical sources, and going through sites that spoke about both the real side and the fictional side of Yukimura, to say the least. In the long run, due to how history was recorded hundreds of years ago, it is hard to get a definitive answer on certain points, especially when writers add their creative perspective to make a war story sound more epic.


1) Chapter 54, page 431

2) Depending on the source material, some of these characters bear a different name or are presented in a revised way. The one above is a standard listing.

3) The credibility of the source that mentions Sarutobi Nisuke is also under scrutiny, thus historians feel that he may have been made up to fit some agenda.

4) This was another alias used by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a warlord who managed to seize control of Japan in the later part of the 1500s

5) The terms ninja and ninjutsu are used loosely here, as they are modern words used to identify those who engaged in clandestine activities such as spying, and information gathering. While in the past there were different labels depending on the region and who they were employed by, the universal term was often considered to be shinobi (忍び), and their methods called shinobi-no-jutsu (忍びの術). For the sake of ease in understanding for casual readers, the terms ninja and ninjutsu were chosen to be used in this article.

Looking at the True Sanada Yukimura ~ Part 1

Those who invest time in studying up on the Sengoku jidai (戦国時代, Warring States period) of Japan will eventually come across accounts concerning the Sanada clan. Possibly one of the more popular figures, the Sanada clan are renown for their brave, unorthodox methods of warfare while under the allegiance to warlords such as Takeda Shingen and Hideyoshi Hideyori. Out of the known members of this clan, the most talked about would arguably be the one named Yukimura. To some it would be due to his fame, yet this in turn is riddled with discrepancy. Who was this Sanada Yukimura?

Primarily inspired (mainly from curiosity) through the Kai Kokushi project found in the Translation section of this blog¹, I decided to take a shot at presenting the true face of Yukimura, as well as separating him from the fabled image that is currently predominant around the world. What I’ve found out, however, that this is a task that, in the very end would still have holes due to a lack of solid factual evidence, making it near impossible to paint a perfect picture. A plus to all this is understanding the situation enough where I can at least explain it where readers can discern just how difficult it is to claim what is historically real and what is fabricated through fiction.

In this 1st post of this 2-part discussion, we will touch upon the historical story regarding of the true Yukimura, the origins of the fictional Yukimura, and the proposed reasoning behind the name.

BRIEF LOOK AT THE LIFE OF NOBUSHIGE

Picture of Sanada Nobushige (Yukimura). From Wikipedia

To understand the legend of Sanada Yukimura is to learn about how historical sources view him. For starters, Sanada Yukimura’s actual name is said to be Nobushige (信繁). His active participation in war is often recited to be around 1600, when the Western forcess of the Toyotomi clan went to war against the Eastern forces of the Tokugawa clan for control over Japan during the “War at Sekigahara” (関ヶ原合戦, Sekigahara Gassen)². During this time he was fighting alongside his father, Sanada Masayuki while establishing a strong fortification in Ueda Castle on the side of the Toyotomi clan. Records point out that Nobushige and his father went into hiding at Kudoyama (九度山) in northern Wakayama prefecture after the Tokugawa-Eastern force came out victorious in the battle and had Masayuki exiled.

Many years later, Nobushige and his troops joined allies of the remaining Toyotomi clan to occupy Osaka Castle, as well as took part in the fighting against the Tokugawa shogunate that ensued afterwards, known as the Osaka Campaign (大阪の陣, Osaka no Jin) in 1614. Nobushige is said to have been a skilled strategist, as he performed effective tactics such as securing a weakpoint on the side of Osaka castle with his own fortification called “Sanada-maru” (真田丸), which proved to be near impenetrable. He also divided his troops into smaller squads around the battlefield and attacked their enemies from multiple directions, disrupting the opposite side’s advancements a few times. As talented as he was, however, in the long run Nobushige met his end during one of the smaller conflicts that took place during the war called “Battle at Mikatagahara” (三方ヶ原の戦い, Mikatagahara no Tatakai). It is recorded that while he was wounded and tired amongst a grove of trees, Nobushige was successfully killed and decapitated. The rest of his troops shared a similar fate.

Yet, there is much mystery surrounding his death as well, as there are claims that he had managed to escape to Satsuma province (present-day Kagoshima) through the use of many kagemusha (影武者, someone posing as a double of another). These kagemusha perished in battle posing as him³. This is a recent claim made in 1941 by researchers who came across the grave of one of Nobushige’s grandchildren in Kagoshima, who’s name was Sanada Daisuke (真田大助). Speaking of graves, supposedly Nobushige has many graves around certain areas in Japan; while this isn’t an unusual thing in Japan, a few of these are in areas where certain individuals claim he traveled abit during his escape before making his residence there. Of course, these claims are made during modern times.

Is it a possibility that one of these claims are true? Could it be that the myth created from the novels that portray Sanada Yukimura as a legendary figure was the inspiration for random people to devise such plans that support the notion of Nobushige having survived the Osaka campaign? This goes against the official report by the Tokugawa shogunate where, despite soldiers claiming to have brought back the head of this fearless warrior, they were able to confirm his death through using an acquaintance of the Sanada clan to identify the correct head of Nobushige.

Image of a newspaper article from 1941 regarding the discovery of a grave of Yukimura’s grandchild. From “Rekishi Kenkyu Unno“.

In the actual records before Nobushige’s untimely death, the name “Yukimura” doesn’t come up at all. However, it becomes widely used later. In reality, surviving records show that this figure is known by the name of Nobushige, along with other titles he took on during his military career⁴. While he is a recognized warrior of the Sanada clan, Nobushige’s military career is somewhat underwhelming. When comparing merits and achievements, it appears that a few of his predecessors accomplished more. For instance, his father Masayuki is a much more renown individual due to his illustrious career on and off the battlefield serving different lords, including his long time servitude under Takeda Shingen’s as one of his top 24 generals.

BIRTH OF “YUKIMURA”

When does the name “Yukimura” start to come into play? The earliest example is in the war chronicle “Nanba Senki”⁵ (難波戦記), which was written in 1672, years later after the Tokugawa Shogunate was well established and had complete rule over Japan. This covers the actual events that unfolded during the Osaka Campaign, told from the supportive side of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his allies. When it comes down to speaking about the Sanada clan and their forces, who were on the opposing side, the name used to identify Nobushige was not his real name, but “Yukimura” instead.

This trend continued, as the name Yukimura also appeared in other places, such as the official family registry for lords and their retainers called “Kanseichōshu Shokafu”(寛政重修諸家譜), the Sanada lineage & history compiled in Matsushiro district (present-day Matsushiro Town, Nagano), as well as fictional war novels such as “Chibō Sanada Yukimura” (智謀真田幸村) and “Sanada Sandaiki” (真田三代記). These were all written during the Edo period. The continuous use of this name gave many the perspective that this was the official name, thus the Yukimura tag further its inclusion in historical-related subjects, especially in pop culture. For example, fans of manga may be familiar with the heroic portrayal of Sanada Yukimura in “Goshimei Bushō Sanada Yukimura: Kageroi” (御指名武将真田幸村 かげろひ -KAGEROI-), or game enthusiasts may enjoy playing as him in the video series “Sengoku Basara” (戦国BASARA).

One would think through the evidence of Nobushige being his real name, that the current descendants or affiliates of the Sanada line would dispute this fabricated name being used as almost an official identification. Surprisingly, it appears that the name “Yukimura” has not only been accepted, but also promoted as well. As mentioned before, a Sanada lineage chart was officially released from Matsushiro domain many years ago. This was under the control of Sanada Nobuyuki (真田信之) & his descendants at one time, and they compiled this lineage chart which includes Yukimura⁶. It is possible that, due to the large recognition and popularity the name brings brings to the history of the Sanada clan, that they have “accepted” Yukimura being a nickname of Nobushige.

THE REASON BEHIND THE NAME

Why use “Yukimura” instead of “Nobushige”? It is not 100% confirmed, but there appears to be some logical patterns behind this. For starters, it is not unusual in Japanese documents of old to change a particular figure’s name if they were on the losing side. Doing so may imply some things, such as if they are viewed as significant or not, referencing the actual individual directly may be a taboo, or in order to take some creative liberties with their story. From another point, changing Nobushige’s name may indicate a little of each of what was just mentioned with the following explanation.

A historian by the name of Atobe Ban published a book entitled “Sanada Yukimura ‘Eiyū Densetsu no Uso to Shinjitsu'” (真田幸村 “英雄伝説のウソと真実”) in 2015. In this book, Mr. Atobe explains how Yukimura (幸村) is an acronym for certain traits of the Sanada clan that bears some weight depending on how one views it⁷. He does this by dissecting the name into separate components.

Cover of Atobe Ban’s book regarding the facts and fiction surrounding Sanada Yukimura

Taking the first character yuki (幸), the pronunciation is used for naming purposes. This character was originally used in the given name of different members of the Sanada family (such as Nobushige’s father, Masayuki), as well as the preceding clan they originate from, being the Unnō family. Bearing positive meanings such as “bountiful harvest”, “good fortune”, and “happiness”, it is no wonder why yuki would be an acceptable component in a given name. Yet, why wasn’t Nobushige named in a similar vein? Who knows. Possibly as a nod to this, the writer of Nanba Senki may have thought the same thing when conceiving the name Yukimura.

Now for the last character mura (村). This character is in reference to the Muramasa (村正), a type of sword forged in the style by the famous swordsmith named Sengo Muramasa (千子村正). There are supposedly 2 theories why “mura” is used, but they arrive to the same conclusion.

  • The 1st one is that Nobushige, his troops, and even possibly other members of the Sanada clan used the Muramasa (村正) swords as their preferred style of blades. While there is no proof regarding this, it is one that is also not unreasonable. Muramasa swords are known for their sharpness, to the point that they would cut and harm everything and everyone indiscriminately…including the wielder (more on this in the 2nd theory). For the sake of war, these types of swords were ideal and sought after. Between the late 1400s to throughout the 1500s the Muramasa swords were massed produced and said to have been used by many throughout Japan. It would make sense that the Sanada clan would also add this to their equipment.
  • The 2nd theory spurs from Tokugawa Ieyasu’s superstition regarding the Muramasa swords. It is stated that from his youth onward, he had repeated bad experiences with these popular swords, despite the fact that it was originally a favorite in the Tokugawa household. At one time, when inspecting this type of sword, he had cut himself when drawing out this blade from its scabbard. As he got older he viewed the Muramasa to be bad luck to him and his family line, as he saw it having the possibility of bringing his family line doom. Once establishing his reign over Japan, it is said that Ieyasu ordered these Muramasa swords banned, and to have them be dismantled. Now, seeing how strongly he was against this type of sword, you can imagine how this can be applied to those who were his enemies and how they willingly armed themselves with Muramasa swords. Interestingly, it is recorded that the Sanada clan were extremely difficult to defeat due to their unconventional battle tactics and their resourcefulness. Ieyasu and his allies had many difficulties with subduing them during the battle at Sekigahara and Osaka Campaign. You can say that Nobushige (Yukimura) was like the Muramasa, as he was a thorn in the side of Tokugawa Ieyasu that could not be overlooked.

CONCLUSION

Now that a clearer picture of who the real Yukimura/Nobushige was, we’ll end part 1 here. While there is a definitive record of who he was up until his speculated death, in actuality there are some things that remain unclear due to a lack of proper documentation, as well as claims made by Sanada supporters. Part 2 will continue with looking at the fictional Yukimura, traits and items that are iconic to him, and how they may have been inspired by real life evidence associated with Nobushige.


1) You can access it by clicking on the “Translations” tab from the menu above, or you can go directly to the Kai Kokushi page here.

2) In actuality, Nobushige was active much earlier than this. Since 1592 he, his brother, and father were serving Toyotomi Hideyoshi, handling different tasks over the years such as managing Nagoya Castle in Bizen Province (present-day Saga Prefecture), taking part in the construction of Fukumi Castle in Kyoto, and occupying Ueda Castle in Nagano Prefecture.

3) Out of these kagemusha, 5 have been identified. Their names are Mochizuki Yoemon (望月宇右衛門), Yamada Kichibei (山田喜知平), Anayama Kosuke (穴山小助), Takabashi Shikibu (高橋式部) and Anayama Ichiemon (穴山市右衛門).

4) These names include Genjirō (源次郎), Saemon-no-suke (左衛門助), and Kōhakusai (好白斎)

5) Another name for this is “Osaka Gunki” (大阪軍記)

6) Some writers such as Hirayama Masaru wrote about this point. Originally, Sanada descendants in Matsushiro domain compiled “Sanada-ke Bunsho” (真田家文書, Records of the Sanada Family), which included a lineage chart. Within this only the name “Nobushige” was used. At a later date, this was converted to “Sanada-ke Keifu” (真田家系譜, Genealogy of the Sanada Family), which would include the name “Yukimura”. These were both produced during the Edo period.

It appears that these descendants accept the “Yukimura” name as being used for Nobushige after the Osaka Campaign. That doesn’t necessarily mean they believe Nobushige himself used it himself.

7) Apparently there is another way to write the name. In relations to the news report about the discover of his grandchild’s grave in Kagoshima made in 1941, supposedly a gravesite for Yukimura was also found. On the headstone the name “Yukimura” is on it, but using the characters “雪丸”. These characters may have been used to keep his grave hidden…that is, if this story is true.