The Strategic Prowess of Takigawa Kazumasu ~ Part 3

We continue with Takigawa Kazumasu’s history during Medieval Japan under renown feudal lords such as Oda Nobunaga, as he accomplishes many feats through his tact, resourcefulness, and his influence on others. Last we left off where Kazumasu participates in the ambitious campaign by his lord Oda Nobunaga to take over Northern Ise. Will they be successful?


Around the middle of the 5th month of 1569, Takigawa Kazumasu, his force, and his new allies stayed holed up in Kizukuri castle, as they had to hold out against Kitabatake Tomomori and his large force. Kizukuri castle was completely surrounded, so any chances of escape were cut off. Fortunately, word of their plight got back to Oda Nobunaga, was also taking care of other matters at the same time¹. He would command his available top officers to round up their troops and head to assist them. A large army was able to gather at Gifu castle in Mino Province², which consisted of the combined strength of his trusted retainers and their own troops, such as Shibata Katsuie, Ujiie Naomoto from western Mino, and Kinoshita Hideyoshi.

Artwork of Oda Nobunaga. From the series “Taiheiki Eiyūden” (太平記英勇傳, Heroes of the Great Peace). By Utagawa Kuniyoshi.

In the 8th month of the same year, Nobunaga’s large army finally headed into Northern Ise and made their way towards Kizukuri castle. For the last 3 months, Kazumasu and everyone else holed up inside Kizukuri castle did their best to hold out for as long as they could against Kitabatake Tomonori’s force. While they had to endure a long siege, in the long run it paid off; when Tomonori heard how large the incoming army of the Oda force was, he and his troops fell back, and quickly retreated to Okawachi castle.


Kazumasu and his force were finally rescued, and in short time joined Nobunaga’s large force as they moved on to besiege Okawachi castle. Arriving there, Nobunaga had his force surround this castle by making it triple-layered, to prevent any chances of escape. This would be the chance they’ve been waiting for, to take control over Northern Ise in a decisive battle against the Kitabatake family, starting with Tomonori.

Okawachi castle was well equipped, fortified, and suited against sieges, so Tomonori made no attempts to go into battle. Seeing how no confrontation was going to be made, Nobunaga ordered his troops to hold their ground in an attempt to wait their opponents out and weaken their morale. This waiting period lasted for about a month, with a couple of attempts to speed up things. This included building spiked fences around the castle’s perimeter, and a night raid, which ultimately failed due to heavy rainfall rendering their rifles useless. At a later date, Nobunaga ordered Kazumasu to cut off their rations supply by burning down neighboring Tage castle. Kazumasu did as ordered, as well as set ablaze the immediate area around this castle. The fire caused the inhabitants of Tage castle to flee to Okawachi castle, which allowed them in. However, this brought about an even bigger issue as with their food line cut, Tomonori now had even more people to feed, which was an outcome Nobunaga must’ve anticipated.

Although it took time, Nobunaga’s actions did prove fruitful, for eventually Tomonori called for a peaceful surrender. To capitalize over his defeated foe, Nobunaga had his 2nd son, Nobukatsu, become the next heir of the Kitabatake by having him marry with Tomonori’s daughter, Yukihime, then have him adopted by Tomonori’s son, Tomofusa. The way this process worked was Tomofusa had no children of his own, so if Nobukatsu was taken in as an adopted son, he would be able to keep the Kitabatake line going. This also meant that the Oda clan would claim Northern Ise through hereditary means. Along with this union, Okawachi castle was given up by the Kitabatake family, in which Kazumasu was given the responsibility to take control.

At a lost, Tomonori moved to Mise Yakata (三瀬館, Mise Mansion), which was near the Kitabatake-owned Kiriyama castle. There, he would later retire from his military career and become a monk. Clinching control over Northern Ise, Nobunaga went to Ise Shrine to say prayers and pay respect to the new land that is now in his control.


Gaining control over Northern Ise did wonders in propelling Oda Nobunaga’s power and influence, as well as further cement his presence as a threat to those who oppose him. During the campaign he even was able to establish good relations with Ashikaga Yoshiaki, and helped him gain entry into Kyoto and ascend to being the 15th shogun, continuing the Ashikaga rule…although Nobunaga himself used him as a stepping stone in order to have direct influence in the Imperial court. Takigawa Kazumasu had truly sided himself with a warlord who has the potential to rule Japan, thus he used his talents to achieve victory in whatever task was presented to him. It just so happened that late within the same year, there was some bad relations between a feudal lord within Ise province named Hosono Fujiatsu of Anō castle and Oda Nobukane, who had recently been instated as lord of Ise Ueno castle³. Kazumasu was sent to handle the situation, and he was able to quell the situation by allowing Fujiatsu to adopt his son, Yatsumaro⁴. Through this, Kazumasu was entrusted with Anotsu castle, Shibumi castle, and Kozukuri castle. As can be seen, his story is heavily dependent on much of his lord’s actions, for his story goes hand-in-hand with many of the war campaigns the Oda army took part in.

Artwork of Kennyo in what appears to be suit of armor.

Kazumasu’s next task at hand would soon present itself just one year after the dealings with Kitabatake clan, In Osaka, located in Japan’s western area sits a large estate that acts as a religious ground, with a large temple Ishiyama Honganji in the center. This temple was home of Buddhist monks of Jōdō Shinshu sect, led by the head priest Kennyo. At the time, Jōdō Shinshu Buddhism was not only the most widely practiced at the time, but Kennyo also expressed separation from governing rule. They were in a unique position as they grew in their own political power and influence, and commanded their own force of warrior monks⁵. On top of this, others in the land sided with the the monks’ viewpoint, especially those who suffered a lose due to the Oda force taking over Nagashima castle. This group of rebels collaborated with those of the temple Ganshōji in Nagashima, and were known as the Nagashima ikkō ikki (長島一向一揆). Over a course of time, as he acquired new allies and developed working relations with the Imperial court in Kyoto, Nobunaga also had deteriorating relations with Kennyo, as he expressed his disapproval of this unchecked rising power of the monks of Ishiyama Honganji.

In the 9th month of 1570, Oda Nobunaga had sent a small army to Fukushima in Settsu (present day southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture), north of Ishiyama Honganji. This expedition was to deal with the Miyoshi clan, who were considered allies with the monks of Ishiyama Honganji, as well as supported by 15th shogun Yoshiaki, who was trying to side with those who could help suppress the potential seize of power by Nobunaga. A month later, after declaring Oda Nobunaga a threat to Buddhism as a whole, Kennyo ordered his force to go and attack that army. A battle soon ensued around Yōdō river, which ran along Osaka and Settsu where the Oda army was stationed. Nobunaga’s army won and drove Kennyo’s force back to Ishiyama Honganji, and would also have a few more successful wins in other skirmishes against supporting groups as a small war was on the rise.

Artwork called “Taiheiki Nagashima Gassen: Ise Nagashima Ikkō Ikki” (太平記長嶋合戦 -伊勢長島一向一揆-). Here, the Nagashima ikkō ikki are shown battling against the Oda Force. By Utagawa Yoshikazu.

Kazumasu and other top officers took part in the war, setting up their fortifications for the long haul, including in castles they took over during the war with the Kitabatake family. However, they would soon have to deal with the relentless force of the Nagashima ikkō ikki. At one point, they had harassed Kazumasu to the point where as he and his force retreated from the battlefield, they gave chase. Later, they would assault Kokie castle in Owari Province, where Oda Nobuoki, Nobunaga’s younger brother, was stationed at. Nobuoki would hold out against the assault for 6 days, until the castle was breached and he and his troops had to evacuate. During the assault, Nobunaga had sent aid to save his son. Kazumasu, who was occupying Kuwana castle at the time, was also summoned to help. However, he too was besieged and had to stay walled up in his castle. While Nobuoki managed to survive the besiegers, Kokie castle was lost in the hands of the Nagashima ikkō ikki.

On May 12, 1571, Nobunaga had rounded up a large army, and moved towards Nagajima to deal with the ikkō ikki. He led them through a narrow valley, which was a mistake. The rebel group ikkō ikki laid a trap as they waited on both sides of the valley. As the Oda forces proceeded inside, the opposition ambushed them, initiating it by raining gunfire from their rifles, then closing upon them through upclose skirmishes. Many people of the Oda force sustained a large amount of damage, along with a large number of casualties. In the end, the Oda force was not successful in this campaign against the monks of Ishiyama Honganji and their supporters. Kazumasu and others were withdrawn from the fighting, and returned to their territories to recover from their losses. However, Nobunaga himself was not deterred, as he was determined to continue this war with them until he succeeds in eliminating them.


Not too long after the unsuccessful campaign, Takigawa Kazumasu was yet again summoned to take part in a battle. This time it was against a considerably powerful feudal lord, who was known as Takeda Shingen, the lord of Kai Province. There was abit of history between the two, including during the campaign in Northern Ise⁶. This time around, in an effort to rout Nobunaga, Shingen intended to invade neighboring Tōtomi Province and Mikawa Province from the north-east with a large army split into three. In an effort to prevent this, Nobunaga needed to combine efforts with his ally Tokugawa Ieyasu, who was lord over Mikawa Province.

Section featuring Takeda Shingen from the artwork entitled “Ichimosai Mushae Minamoto Harunobu Yamagata Masakage” ( 一猛齋 武者絵 源晴信 山県昌景 , Ichimōsai’s Warriors Art piece: Minamoto Harunobu (aka Takeda Shingen) and Yamagata Masakage). By Utagawa “Ichimōsai” Yoshitora.

Nicknamed “the tiger of Kai⁷”, Shingen was a particularly well-established lord who maintained a highly disciplined and efficiently organized army that utilized cavalry forces very skillfully, so his presence coming anywhere near Nobunaga was a threat that couldn’t be ignored. Nobunaga mobilized an army of a few thousand troops, as he had to keep the majority behind to protect his lands from other potential invasions. As one of the generals, Kazumasu made preparations and led his troops. He coordinated alongside with other top officers, such as Nobunaga’s senior general an war-harden Sakuma Nobumori, the recently acquired Mizuno Nobumoto, and loyal Oda clan retainers Hirate Hirohide & Hayate Hidesada. While the Oda force wasn’t as large as the Takeda’s, their continual development of using gunner squads was expected to be key component in winning. Being experienced with rifles and firearms, Kazumasu was a good candidate to bring for this.

In the 10th month of 1971, Shingen invaded Ieyasu’s borders, with his sights set on claiming Hamamatsu castle and thus controlling the area. He sent is army to first gain control of Futamata castle, which was under the control of one of Tokugawa’s officers. The combined forces of Nobunaga and Ieyasu worked to intercept this, which led to several clashes. First of the clashes would take place around the slope of Hitogoto-zaka (一言坂, Hitogoto Slope) in Tōtomi Province, just north of Hamamatsu castle.

A map showing the layout of the territories controlled by the major players in the war between Oda Nobunaga , Takeda Shingen, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

The flow of the battle was not in the favor of the Oda-Tokugawa coalition, however, as the Takeda proved to be too much to deal with due to their sheer numbers. The Oda force had to retreat from the skirmish. The Takeda army continued to march towards Futamata castle and, although faced abit of resistance for a few weeks, were able to successfully drive out the defenders and claim Futamata castle by cutting off their water supply. After these unfortunate events, Nobunaga and Ieyasu both took time to regroup.

For the next couple months Nobunaga and Ieyasu prepared to trap the advancing Takeda army and attack from different angles. There was also extra fortification put in place at Hamamatsu castle, with trusted generals such as Takigawa Kazumasu and Sakuma Nobumori given the task of defending it. This was certainly a great honor, mostly likely due to Kazumasu’s track record of successfully managing captured castles during the campaign in Northern Ise. In 1572, as the joint forces prepared to set their plan into motion, Takigawa assisted in administrative duties at Hamamatsu castle and the given area around it, along with maintaining diplomatic relations, and administrative duties.

At some point it was discovered that Shingen wasn’t heading for Hamamatsu castle, but instead commanded his troops to pass by and entrap Nobunaga and his force with the Takeda army moving in several parts. Kazumasu and Nobumori of the Oda force, along with other officers of the Tokugawa force tried to advice Ieyasu against the planned trap, especially since his force was still outnumbered. Ieyasu, on the other hand, did not heed to the advice, and continued with the intended plan. Taking position up on Mikatagahara, Ieyasu ordered his troops to charge at the passing Takeda troops. Kazumasu, along with Sakuma Nobumori and other generals combined their efforts with the Tokugawa force, intending to overcome their larger opponents with the newer technology of rifles. Initially this ambush appeared to have worked, as it caused some disarray in their formation. However, it proved to not be enough as Shingen had his cavalry units run through the gunners, disrupting their attack while killing unprepared soldiers.

A 3-section art piece entitled, “Mikatagahara no Tatakai” ( 三方ヶ原の戦い , Battle at Mikatagahara). In the center panel is Takeda Shingen, who’s leading his cavalry in the right panel against the Tokugawa force in the left panel By Yōshu Chikanobu.

Both the Oda and Tokugawa troops were overwhelmed by the Takeda army’s exceptionally crafted strategies and militaristic discipline, while their formations crumbled before the cavalry assaults. In the long run, much casualties were faced on the defenders’ side, especially with the lost of Nobunaga’s close retainer Hirate Hirohide. Kazumasu and others retreated off the field in order to save their lives. Ieyasu not only had to fled back to Hamamatsu castle to save himself, but lost many soldiers and important officers as they tried to cover his retreat.

It was clear that Takeda Shingen was the superior force, while a looming fear crept on the losing side that he would succeed in defeating Nobunaga and capture parts of the eastern provinces. What will happen to Takigawa Kazumasu and his companions? Will they survive? Could the mighty Shingen be stopped? Tune in to part 4 to find out the outcome.

1) Around this time, Oda Nobunaga was making an agreement with displaced Ashikaga Yoshiaki, who was trying to continue his family’s line of shogunate rulers by gaining entry into Kyoto.

2) Interestingly, Mino Province in next to Kuwana, where the Kitabatake family were located in

3) During the Northern Ise campaign, Oda Nobunaga was able to claim Ise Ueno castle through peace relations with Nagano Tomofuji. This was solidified through marriage between Nobunaga’s younger brother, Nobukane, and Tomofuji’s niece.

4) Details about him are scarce. It is not clear if Yatsumaro (八麿) was a biological son of Kazumasu’s. One thing that is clear is that this deal benefited Oda Nobunaga a great deal, for when Fujiatsu is out of the picture, Yatsumaro would claim Anō castle.

5) Around 1568, Nobunaga was multitasking between the Northern Ise campaign and assisting Ashikaga Yoshiaki into becoming the next shogun. As Oda headed to Kyoto to help Yoshiaki gain entrance, there were many that had some connection with the Imperial court who opposed this, such as the Miyoshi clan, Asai clan, Araki clan, and even Kennyo of Ishiyama Honganji. They made a pact called “Nobunaga Hōimō” (信長包囲網, Anti-Nobunaga network). Takeda Shingen was also against Nobunaga, and was recruited by these opposers to help subdue this growing threat. Apparently Shingen had mobilized an army, but was kept back through the assistance of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

6) Here I use loosely the term “warrior monks”, which is sōhei (僧兵) in Japanese, as this is common term. However, it has to be pointed out that there’s a large misconception regarding warrior monks, not on in the West but in Japan as well. While the idea sounds similar to say the Shaolin monks in China, warrior monks were not necessarily Buddhist monks, or fully ordained. Books like “The Teeth and Claws of the Buddha: Monastic Warriors and Sōhei in Japanese History” (Mikael S. Adolphson) goes into deep details regarding Japanese researchers and how they’ve been able to get a better picture through surviving accounts about warriors who represent the military strength recruited by these Buddhist temples. In many cases, they were oftentimes warriors hired to protect the temple. This isn’t saying that monks themselves didn’t go to war, but at what rate can these warriors be called “Buddhist monks” is the point here.

Also, while the popular image has these hired “warrior monks” dressed in robes and have a shawl wrapped around their head and face, in reality their appearance was, in many cases, similar to that of regular warriors. There may have been few who do fit the stereotypical image, but it may be more related to them being of status where they could dress with extra attire to distinguish themselves. This is not unusual.

7) This is “Kai no tora” (甲斐の虎) in Japanese

Final Chapters of Kyohachi ryu: Kyo ryu

After a short hiatus, we now set our attention to the final chapters on my discussion regarding Kyohachi ryu. Originally, this post was to cover the last 3 martial systems connected to Kyohachi ryu in one shot. However, due to how voluminous the info gathered from researching, I decided to make separate posts showcasing each of the martial systems. What makes these 3 schools connected is their claim to direct transmission to the military strategist Kiichi Hogen’s martial teachings on Mt. Kurama, but have a serious gap or inconsistency that says otherwise.


The martial style called Kyo ryu1 would sound like it has an automatic connection to Kyohachi ryu. The name meaning “(Sword) style of the Capital”, Kyo ryu gives a nod at being a martial system born in the rich culture of Heian Kyo, Japan’s Capital during the Muromachi period (1336~1573). Due to the residence of the Imperial family, as well as rich and infuential families, anything coming out of the Capital was regarded as high quality. This included instruction of martial systems found there…one case being Kyohachi ryu.

Artwork of Yamamoto Kansuke by Matsumoto Fukou. Dated late 19th century. From Wikipedia.

The story of Kyo ryu begins with Yamamoto Kansuke Haruyuki (1493-1561), commonly referred to by his nickname Kansuke2. Born in Hoi District in Mikawa Province (present day Toyokawa City in Aichi Prefecture), he was one of Takeda Shingen’s3 famed 24 generals4. Kansuke is recognized for his contribution to many written works related to both the military and martial field in the Takeda house, such as Rodanshu5 and Heiho Hidensho6. He was also a major contributor in the development of Takeda Shingen’s army and the tactics they utilized, as well as gave lectures to certain high ranking individuals on topics to ensure that the might and influence of the Takeda house throughout Kai Province and neighboring lands stays constant.

Opening the book Heiho Hidensho by Yamamoto Kansuke. The version in my collection was published by Keibunsha.

Written accounts such as “Koyo Gunkan”7 and “Bukou Zakki”8 describe Kansuke as being skilled at martial combat, as well as an accomplished strategist. It’s here where claims of his personal system being called Kyo ryu are mentioned. Tales speak of Kansuke as very skilled and fearsome warrior, some of them making him bigger than life. For example, feats such as outbesting a certain Ishii Tozaburou9, who wielded a live sword, with only a mere stick10. Also, a popular portrayal of him is using a naginata for support in walking like a cane to compensate for his lame leg. Tales like these are the perfect precursor to being tied to Kyohachi ryu, whether real or not. His abilities contrast with his physical state, however, for his appearance is considered quite appalling. Kansuke was blind in the right eye, had damaged fingers, lame in the left leg, and had many scars on his body due to the rough life he endured during his journey.

In sources like “Heihoden Toroku”, it is stated that Kansuke’s first exposure to martial and military studies when he was little11 is through his foster father, Oomori Kanzaemon, and military strategist named Suzuki Hyuuga-no-Kami Shigetatsu, who was a colleague of Kanzaemon. Kansuke learned a lot from the 2 of them, enough where he could pit his might against other warriors to test his skills. After the death of his mother, Yasu, Kansuke journeyed around different parts of Japan in his 20s for about 10 years as a rounin12, in order to further his training as a warrior. He was also able to study many areas concerning warfare and strategies, such as heiho (martial combat), chikujoujutsu (castle construction and defense), and jintori (tactics against armies). What he learned during this period is possibly the makeup of Kyo ryu, although there are no scrolls or manuals that verify this under such a title.

Art work named “武田二十四将図”, the feudal lord Takeda Shingen (top, middle) is shown sitting amongst his trusted 24 generals. Yamamoto Kansuke is present in the bottom row, 2nd to the left. Scanned from “Furin Kazan: Sengoku no Yo o Kakenuketa Meiso ‘Takeda Shingen’ to Gunshi ‘Yamamoto Kansuke'”.

The connection to Kyohachi ryu is speculated to happen before Kansuke’s employment under Takeda Shingen, through his foster father Kanzaemon and the strategist Shigetatsu. The story in Heihoden Toroku states that around mid 1300s Kanzaemon was employed as a Daikan (prefectural governor or magistrate during Edo period) at the Takabashi Manor located in Mikawa country (present day Toyoda City in Aichi prefecture). Chuujou Nagahide13 was also employed in the same area, and taught his system, Chuujou ryu. At the time, Chuujou ryu is said to pertain the touhou (sword methods) of Kiichi Hogen. It is believed that Kanzaemon, as well as Shigetatsu, spent some time training in Chuujou ryu, and in turn taught this to Kansuke. If this is true, then Kansuke’s kenjutsu is based on Chuujou ryu, and Kyo ryu can rightfully be said to represent Kyohachi ryu. However, there are no official records of Kanzaemon and Shigetatsu studying at the Chuujou dojo in historical documents, thus making this more of a theoretical speculation.

If Kyo ryu did exist, is it possible that Kansuke had students to pass down this knowledge? Some sources give a nod to this possibility.  For example, in the book “Honcho Bugei Shoden”14,  a warrior by the name of Maebara Chikuzen-no-Kami 15 is written to have been a skilled swordsman of Kyo ryu, who could cut down numerous sensu (folding fans) tossed at him. Apparently he learned kenjutsu and other skills of combat from Kansuke.

A depiction of Yamamoto Kansuke on the battlefield. From the art series “甲越勇将傳 武田家二十四将”. Artwork by Utagawa Kuniyoshi made between 1848-49.

In honesty, Kyo ryu’s existence is legendary, as it is tied with one of Japan’s respected historical figures, Yamamoto Kansuke. While there are documentations of Kansuke’s knowledge on kenjutsu and other areas of combat and strategy, which contributed immensely to the success of Takeda Shingen’s military campaigns and shinobi network16, there is no concrete documentation about Kyo ryu and its curriculum. Did it truly exist? Until new authentic discoveries are made, this is hard to say.

This sums up the discussion on Kyo ryu, a system just as mysterious as Kyohachi ryu. The next post will cover the history of Kurama ryu, which bears the same name as the location where Kyohachi ryu is said to have been born.

1)  “Kyo” of Kyo ryu is written in 2 ways. One is with the Chinese character “京”, which stands for Capital. The other is “行”, which has several meanings including “to journey”, “to carry out a task”, “line”, and “bank”. Which of these is the intended meaning is not mentioned. It is also possible that the pronunciation using the second character would change to “Gyo ryu” or “Ko ryu”, but this is an assumption on my part.

2)山本勘助晴幸. He acquired many other ways of writing Kansuke (勘助), where the phonetic stays the same, while the Chinese characters are written differently. He also has a religious name upon his entrance into priesthood later in his life, which is Doukisai (道鬼斎).

3) Takeda Shingen (1521-1573) was a daimyo (feudal lord) famous for his numerous successes in military campaigns, and the skilled & resourceful individuals he kept in his company. Well known by the nickname “Kai no Tora” (Tiger of Kai Province) due to his reputation as a powerful lord.

4) Takeda Shingen ran a very strict and organized househould and army. To ensure things go smoothly in his pursuit of power, Takeda kept certain individuals close that he trusted dearly. There was around 24 of them who were appointed as generals to help keep his army in top shape, as well as manage his numerous spies that keep tabs on his enemies around Japan.

5) Rodanshu (老談集) is an illustration scroll that shows hand drawn tools and weapons said to be used by shinobi.

6) Heiho Hidensho (兵法秘伝書) is a 5-volume documentation written around the mid 1500s. It is a collection of notes and pointers by Yamamoto Kansuke regarding weapon usage (ranging from the sword, staff, and bow & arrow), and strategies on and off the battlefield.

7) Koyo Gunkan (甲陽軍艦) is a collection of about 20 scrolls covering the achievements, battles, rules & punishments, and strategies of the Takeda house. It also covers the skills, ideals, preparations, and other important points for those of Koshu ryu, a martial system derived from Takeda Shingen’s military force.

8) Bukou Zakki (武功雑記) is a war journal written by Matsuura Shigenobu (松浦鎮信), a 4th generation lord of Hirado Domain in Hizen Province (divided into present day Saga prefecture and Nagasaki prefecture). Compiled in 1696, it covers the accomplishments of certain warriors and warlords that were active between 1573-1624.

9) A practitioner and swordsman of Shinto ryu (新当流).

10) 心張り棒. A short or long stick used to secure windows and doors. It is propped at an angle and wedged between the door frame and floor for a door, or the side and base of a window frame.

11) Another source of his training is credited to his uncle, whose name is Yamamoto “Tatewaki” Nari (山本帯刀成). However, it cannot be considered completely viable as there is so little info on him. On top of that, there are supposedly other relatives and/or students of Kansuke who bear the nickname “Tatewaki”, so it’s possible that the whole former point is erroneous.

12) 浪人, which means “a wandering masterless samurai”

13) Chuujou Nagahide’s Chuujou ryu is counted as a martial system related to Kyohachi ryu. This was covered in a previous post here.

14) Honcho Bugei Shoden (本朝武芸小伝) is a collection of 10 volumes of books about various fields, topics, and individuals pertaining to martial arts. It was written by Hinatsu Shigetatsu (日夏繁高) in 1714.

15) 前原筑前守. Chikuzen-no-Kami was a samurai who is said to have studied combat and field tactics from Yamamoto Kansuke as a student of Kyo ryu. He was under the employment of the Obata family in Kouzuke Province (present day Gunma prefecture).

16) Takeda Shingen developed his own group of shinobi by using the knowledge of shinobi no jutsu from Iga and Koka regions, and adapting it to his area of rule, Kai Province (present day  Yamanashi Prefecture). It was a well knit system that had both in-house shinobi & civilians used as spies, all serving as the eyes of Takeda.