Moon Phases

The following are from page 16 of Jōyō  Kokugo Binran.

Note that the translation of certain names and words are based off of how they are interpreted in Japanese. In some areas the English equivalent is also included, if it exists.


NEW MOON CYCLE DURATION CHART (陰暦月齢表)

Shows the shape of the moon rise when visible, as well as the estimated corresponding time of the moon set

Shapes of the moon while setting (月の入りの形)

NAME: Shingetsu (新月) = New moon
TIME: 6:00 am (around the last day of the month)

NAME: Futsukagetsu (二日月) = 2nd-day Moon (Crescent Moon)
TIME: 7:30 am (around the 2nd day of the month)


NAME: Mikazuki (三日月) = 3rd-day Moon (Crescent Moon)
TIME: 8:30 am (around the 3rd day of the month)

NAME: Nanokagetsu (七日月) = 7th-day Moon (Half Moon)
TIME: 11:30 am (around the 7th day of the month)

NAME: Yōkagetsu (八日月) =  8th-day Moon (Half Moon)
TIME: 12:30 pm (around the 8th day of the month)


NAME: Kokonokagetsu (九日月) = 9th-day Moon
TIME: 1:30 pm (around the 9th day of the month)


NAME: Tōka Amari no Tsuki (十日余りの月) = Over-10-days Moon
TIME: 3:00 pm (around the 11th day of the month)


NAME: Jūsanya Tsuki / Komochi Zuki (十三夜月・小望月) = Moon on the13th night / “Small Full Moon”
TIME: 4:30 pm (around the 13th~14th day of the month, where the moon appears at night before the full moon)


NAME: Mangetsu/Mochizuki (満月・望月) = Full Moon
TIME: 6:30 pm (around the 15th day of the month)


NAME: Izayoi Zuki,(十六夜月) = Waning Moon / Moon of the 16th night
TIME: 7:00 pm (around the 16th day of the month)


NAME: Tachimachi Zuki (立待月) = Waning-While-Standing Moon
TIME: 7:30 pm (around the 17th day of the month)


NAME: Imachi Zuki (居待月) = Waning-While-Sitting Moon
TIME: 8:30 pm (around the 18th day of the month)


NAME: Fushimachi Zuki (臥待月) = Waning-While-Sleeping Moon (Waning Gibbous)
TIME: 9:30 pm (around the 19th day of the month)


NAME: Fukemachi Zuki (更待月) = Late-Night Moon
TIME: 10:30 pm (around the 20th day of the month)


NAME: Hatsuka amari no Tsuki (二十日余りの月) = Over-20-days Moon
TIME: 12 am (around the 22nd day of the month)


NAME: Nijūsanya Tsuki (二十三夜月) = Moon of the 23rd night(Half Moon)
TIME: 12:30 am (around the 23rd day of the month)


FULL DAY MOON TRANSITION

Note the direction of the moon transitions go as the following:

EAST (東) → SOUTH (南) → WEST (西)

PICTURE #1: Mikazuki (三日月)

① Moon is “yūzukiya” (aka “yoizukiyo”, means moonlit evening) up until the 7th-day moon.
(七日月くらいまでが夕月夜(宵月夜))
② Time the moon leaves is morning at 8:30 am
(月の出 朝8:30)
③ Won’t be able to see until sunset
(夕日まで見えない)
④ Visible in the westward sky during evening. Soon afterwards the moon will drop
(夕方西の空に見え やがて沈む)

PICTURE #2: Nananokagetsu (七月)

① Time the moon comes out is afternoon at 11:30 am
(月の出 昼11:30)
② Won’t be visible until sunset
(夕日まで見えない)
③ Visible in the southern sky during evening
(夕方西の空に見え)
④ Moon sets late night
(月の入 深夜)

PICTURE #3: Mochizuki (望月)

① Moon comes out in the evening at 6:30 pm
(月の出 夕18:30)
② Moon is out all night long
(一晩中月が出ている)
③ Moon sets in the morning
(月の入り 朝)

PICTURE #4: Imachizuki (居待月)

① Moon comes out at night at 8:30 pm
(月の出 夜20:30)
② The moon remains visible in the western sky during morning
(朝西の空に月が残っている)
③ Won’t be able to see the moon set
(月の入りは見えない)

*Called Ariake no Tsuki (Dawn’s Moon) (Also known as Asazukuyo) (有明の月 (朝月夜) )

PICTURE #5: Hatsuka amari no Tsuki (二十日余りの月)

① Moonrise: night at 12 am
(月の出 夜0:00 )
② Moon lingers in the sky to the south in the morning
(朝南の空に月が残っている)
③ Cannot see the moon set
(月の入りは見えない)

*Called Ariake no Tsuki (Dawn’s moon) (Also known as Asazukuyo) (有明の月 (朝月夜) )


NAMING CONVENTION OF MOON PHASES AND THEIR MEANINGS

  • Yuuzukuyo: Moon that is already out in the evening time
    (夕月夜(ゆうずくよ): 夕方にはすでに出ている月)
  • Ariake no Tsuki: The moon that remains visible in the sky even as day breaks.
    (有明(ありあけ)の月: 夜が明けても空に残っている月)
  • Izayoi Zuki: “Izayoi” means “to wane”. This gets this name from how it gives the impression of slowly coming out into view after sunset.
    (十六夜(いざよい)月: 「いざよい」は「ためらう」意。日没後、ためらって出るように思われることからこの名がついた。)
  • Tachimachi Zuki: It means to wait for the moon to come out while standing. It’s the moon that is visible even if you stand and wait after sunset.
    (立待月: 立って月が出るのを待つという意味。日没後、立って待っていても見られる月。)
  • Imachi Zuki: Has the meaning coming out as we wait while sitting. The time this moon comes out is about the same where if you are not sitting down, you will be left tired.
    (居待月: 居って待つ意。居っていないとくたびれるくらい、月の出までに時間がある。)
  • Fushimachi Zuki: Moon which comes out only when we are laying down in our beds waiting. This name has a meaning of coming out while we are sleeping.
    (臥(寝)待月: 横になって待たないと出ない月。)


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