There are many recordings of historical figures that were active during Japan’s Sengoku period. Normally stories of significant figures are readily available, but what about those who may be considered “minor” individuals yet were major players that influenced historical events? This year, a goal of mine is to cover more stories about historical figures that do not have a great deal of info in English. To start things off, this article will be about a military commander named Takigawa Kazumasu.
Who is this individual? Within Japanese history books, Takigawa Kazumasu (滝川一益)¹ is primarily remembered as the 36th retainer of the once powerful Oda Nobunaga, but it should be noted that he rose in the ranks very quickly, and became one of Nobunaga’s most reliable retainers. Even after Nobunaga’s death, Kazumasu would continue to earn merits while serving other feudal lords. In terms of his personality and traits, we learn from recorded military accounts that he was a crafty commander who utilized many tactics, some more indirect than others, to ensure victory on his side. This included psychological warfare, quick assaults and retreats, and secret raids. Kazumasu was especially fond of taking part in establishing kinship in order to gain increased support, even with those who were on the opposing side. Talented in the politics of warfare, as not only did he approach enemies with tact, he was also relied on to handle diplomatic encounters. Overall, he was talented in a variety of situations.
LOOKING AT THE BEGINNING
Kazumasu was born in 1525, and was from Kōka District, Ōmi Province (present-day Kōka City, Shiga Prefecture). His original name is said to have been Kyusaku (久作) before it was changed to Kazumasu during his military career. Other names include also Takigawa Sakon Shōgen (滝川左近将監)². In terms of parents, what is known is that he was the son of a man that is believed to have used either the name Shigekiyo (資清) or Ichikatsu (一勝). Shigekiyo was known to come from a prominent family in Ōhara Village of Kōka District, Ōmi Province, and was once lord of Taki castle.
While he is of the Takigawa family³, Kazumasu also has ties to the Ōtomo clan (大伴氏). This is possibly due to the fact that one of the Takigawa clan’s family crest, the tomoe (巴), is the same as the Tomo clan within the same Kōka Province. Ōtomo is a descendant line of the Tomo line, so speculations are that the Takigawa have an ancestral connection in this manner, but this is not 100% confirmed yet. It is also speculated that the Takigawa family has connections with a few other older family lines, such as the Ki clan, and the Kusunoki clan. It is still uncertain whether or not this is through a blood connection.
As a young kid, Kazumasu is described as having a strong, spirited personality, but was raised with bad manners. It seems he may have rebelled against the tight-knit ways of his fellow residence in Kōka District and caused trouble along the way. At some point, he left his hometown under one of two scenarios. The first is said that he opposed the “all as one” pact that was the predominant stand all the families lived by there. The second is that, through an ongoing dispute with the Takayasu clan, Kazumasu killed one of their members. Supposedly this incident forced him to flee Kōka, as he was sought out by the rest of the Takayasu members of Taki castle.
Before his inevitable departure, Kazumasu had acquired some valuable warfare skills, as he learned how to use the latest military weapons during his youth, such how to operate and shoot various types of guns. This may have been used as a selling point for him as he wandered around in Japan, looking for a place where he could find suitable work under a prominent employer. He would eventually do so, and it is believed that a sibling of his father named Takigawa Tsunetoshi helped with this. From time to time, Kazumasu would visit Tsunetoshi and show off his shooting skills. Around 1558, Tsunetoshi spoke highly about his nephew’s impeccable accuracy with a rifle to members of the Ikeda family, which he had married into. Ikeda Tsuneoki, who was a retainer of Oda family, excited by such claims, requested that he meet him. After establishing contact, Tsuneoki introduced this remarkable gunner to his lord, Oda Nobunaga, who would then request a demonstration. As requested, Kazumasu shot at several targets, hitting each of them with pinpoint accuracy. Pleased with what he had witnessed, Nobunaga took him in and made him one of his retainers. This was a fortunate opportunity for him, as he was able to align himself with the warlord of Owari Province that would later make a huge impact in his trek to conquer Japan.
In 1560, Nobunaga tasked Kazumasu with his first military task, which was participating in the first wave of attacks against the warlord of Suruga Province, Imagawa Yoshimoto, during the battle of Okehazama (桶狭間の合戦) . This battle represented the power struggle that warlords of different areas went through as they contested their might against one another, as Nobunaga made attempts to extend his range of control in the eastern part of Japan. In the long run, Nobunaga and his force were able to defeat Yoshimoto, and claim much of the territory in Suruga Provence. This was only the beginning for them, as key locations were targeted in order to strengthen their growing power and continue to contend with other potential feudal lords trying to claim absolute power as well.
Within the same year, Nobunaga took action to move into Northern Ise through stationing his force at Kanie castle in Owari in 1960. This was possible through the funding from Hattori Tomosada, who was lord over the Nagajima castle of Ninoue in Owari. Initially, Tomosada was given command of Kanie castle, but later was driven out. In his place, Kazumasu was made lord of this castle, which allowed Nobunaga to claim control over one of the 5 major areas in Northern Ise.
SIGHTS ON ISE
For several years, Oda relentlessly set military campaigns throughout Northern Ise, and claimed as much as he could in order to subdue Ise Province as a whole. Takigawa Kasumasu was very active during these campaigns as part of the reserve corps. He had firsthand experience in many of the skirmishes that took place in various territories such as Kaga, Tanba, and Harima as he was assigned to mobile assault forces, which had to infiltrate these territories. An interesting note is that Akechi Mitsuhide, one of Nobunaga’s well known retainers, was recruited around the same time as Kazumasu, possibly under the same conditions of being skilled with rifles. During these infiltration missions, it is said that Mitsuhide also took part in these.
As an example, in the 2nd month of 1567 there was a push to establish suitable grounds in a campaign to subdue the Kitabatake clan, who had major control over northern Ise. Kazumasa, leading a force of 4000, was part of a scheme that targeted the Ueki, Kimata, and Fukumochi families. To start, Kazumasu placed Akechi Mitsuhide into his ranks⁴. This was due in part to Mitsuhide’s connections with a monk named Shōei, who is formally from Ise⁵. Being able to acquire Shōei’s assistance, Kazumasu used him to help in negotiations with certain opposing groups to side with Oda’s forces. Such actions proved very effective in the long run, which not only Kazumasu put into practice, but even Nobunaga as well, which is illustrated in the next paragraph below.
In the same year, Oda Nobunaga laid siege with his main force on Inabayama castle of Mino Province. This castle, along with the area of Mino, was under the control of Saitō Tatsuoki. This is not the first time Nobunaga has targeted this area; a key location in his campaign to control Ise Province, he has tried several times to defeat Tatsuoki and claim both the castle and Mino Province as his own. This time around, Nobunaga was able to gain the upperhand through having local loyalists to the Saitō family side with him, such as Inaba Yoshimichi, Ujiie Naomoto, and Andō Morinari. Gaining cooperation and necessary secrets from those defectors, Oda’s force used a ploy where they bore flags that had the Saitō family’s crest on them as they laid siege. Not being able to distinguish friend from foe, Saitō Tatsuoki was driven out, and retreated to Nagajima of northern Ise by boat. Nobunaga would then rename this castle as “Kifu castle” (岐阜城, Kifu jō).
In the 8th month of 1567, Kazumasu was part of the vanguard of Oda’s main force of 3000 as they marched towards their next target, Kusu castle⁶. At this time, the Kusunoki clan were in control of this castle, with Kusunoki Sadataka acting as the young castle lord⁷. For this battle, Kazumasu was given full command of the troops. He had the assistance of a few other important figures, such as other retainers like Ikeda Tsuneoki, as well as gained support from Kusunoki Masamori, a member of the opposing family that controls Kusu castle, by converting him to Oda Nobunaga’s side⁸. However, despite having a larger army and additional help, Kazumasu and his force were unable to capture Kusu castle, for Kusunoki Masamori too had additional help. For example, Yamaji Danjo, lord of the neighboring Takaoka castle just south of Kusu castle, was able to help defend Kusu castle, and turning the tide of the battle in their favor. In the long run, Kazumasu and his force had to turn back and retreat, but this wasn’t because they were completely defeated. Instead, Kazumasu wanted to regroup, analyze the situation, and try again. Will they be successful in the next round against his younger opponent, Kusunoki Sadataka?
FACT CHECK #1: INFLUENTIAL STRENGTH
Let’s take a moment to examine the main individual of this article. When evaluating Takigawa Kazumasu’s military career in history-related sources, it is often pointed out how quickly he rose in the ranks to being a vital asset in Oda Nobunaga’s successful rise in power. Along with his tactical sense on the battlefield, Kazumasu is also viewed as a competent advisor. As an example, he was given room to speak on military campaigns early in the years after his employment. For example, he was allowed to voice his opinion to his lord Nobunaga regarding the expansion into Northern Ise Province. In order to get the Kitabatake clan to submit, Kazumasu mentioned the importance of occupying Kuwana and Nagashima. He stressed that this would not only gain them access to other lands within Northern Ise such as as Mino Province, but such a move would grant them a better geographic advantage when going up against the Kitabatake clan and their supporters. This display of strategic oversight must’ve been to Nobunaga’s liking, for it would influence Kazumasu to have more opportunities like this.
Along with trust in his perspective on military strategy, Takigawa Kazumasu also was trusted with diplomatic matters. This is evident when he was sent to ensure the contractual acquisition of Matsudaira Motoyasu⁹. This was important because Motoyasu was a retainer to Imagawa Yoshimoto. in 1560, after the death of his lord Imagawa Yoshimoto, Motoyasu and his Matsudaira clan were the only other powerful force that could contest for Owari, yet he did not at any point oppose or challenge Nobunaga. For the span of almost 3 years, there were several contacts made between the two regarding joining forces, but nothing came of these. Finally, in 1563 Motoyasu made to trip within Owari to Nobunaga’s Kiyosu castle in Kasugai District, where he would make his official pledge to serve the Oda clan. As witnesses, Tominaga Tadayasu (a brother to Motoyasu through marriage) and Takigawa Kazumasu were present, and added their seals to the contract that was made to seal the deal¹⁰.
Looking at his history from the beginning of his life up to this point, Takigawa Kazumasu had a slow start with his military career (he gains employment over the age of 30), but the merits he gained are plentiful in such short time. We come to the close of part 1. Stay tuned for part 2, where the story continues with Takigawa Kazumasu’s siege on Kusu castle, along with following battles that will eventually conclude the chapter on Ise Province.
1) In sources another pronunciation for his given name is Ichimasu.
2) In this case, the kanji “滝” (taki) is at times replaced with “辰” (tatsu), but still retains the “taki” sound
3) Speculations are that Kazumasu’s family name was originally Takayasu (高安). However it was changed when Kazumasu’s father Shigekiyo became lord of Taki Castle (滝城). At the time, Shigekiyo went by the name Takayasu Norikatsu (高安範勝).
4) It is thought that early in his military career, Akechi Mitsuhide was not a direct retainer of Oda Nobunaga, but would be so at a later time. Thus the reason why he labored under other generals such as Takigawa Kazumasu.
5) There seems to be a slight discrepancy with this. There are 2 individuals who bear the name “Shōei”, although the kanji in their names vary abit. In many Japanese sources the Shōei mentioned bears the kanji “勝恵”. This was a Buddhist monk of the Jōdō Shinshu sect who helped to establish Hongan Temple (本願寺, Honganji) along with other many monks from Eastern Japan. He was born in 1475 and passed away in 1557. Going by this date, he could not have been alive during Oda Nobunaga’s campaign to control Ise Province.
The other Shōei would be the one who uses the kanji “証恵”. He is the grandson of the 1st generation Shōei mentioned above. This Shōei was born & grew up in Nagajima, which is within Ise Province. It could be that he was the one who had some connection with Mitsuhide Akechi…except that his date of death is 1564. This is 3 years before the time he’s stated to have been recruited. Could it be that the date of death for both individuals named Shōei is wrong? Was there another Shōei that wasn’t recorded? Or was it a completely different person?
6) In some sources, it is said that this is also called Kusunoki castle. This is most likely true, as the kanji “楠” for Kusu can also be read as “Kusunoki”.
7) Kusunoki Sadataka is recorded as being 19 at the time, compared to Takigawa Kazumasu who was in his early 40s.
8) The full details of Kusunoki Masamori’s switch from the Kitabatake’s side to the Oda’s side is not fully described. However, it seems that this was a permanent switch due to Takigawa Kazumasu’s influence, or of some other connection. In fact, their connections will go so far that years later Masamori will marry the daughter of Kazumasu’s nephew.
9) He was the young lord of the Matsudaira clan who would later go by the name of Tokugawa Ieyasu and unify Japan.
10) This agreement is known under various names, with the most well know being “Kiyosu Dōmei” (清洲同盟, Alliance at Kiyosu Castle). Other names include “Shoku-Toku Dōmei” (織徳同盟, Alliance between the Oda clan and Tokugawa clan) and “Bisan Dōmei” (尾三同盟, Alliance between the 2 clans from Owari and Mikawa).