Staying true to the rabbit theme for 2023, here’s another article that is related to the story “White Rabbit of Inaba Country”. The original story, along with analytical tidbits, have been covered already. Now, let’s take a turn in a different direction with it.
As mentioned in a previous article, there are speculations that tales like “The White Rabbit of Inaba Country” are more of a fantastical re-write of true events. I’ve come across a couple of discussions about what those true events could be, but the one that caught my attention the most is one that is fitting of an action film.
While visiting the website for Hakuto Shrine (the shrine located in Tottori Prefecture where the god that is revered there is indeed the White Rabbit) and viewing the mythology page¹, one can find the story about the White Rabbit that fits the same narrative that most are familiar with straight from the historical source called the Kojiki. However, there is another story below it that is claimed to be a true event that took place centuries ago in Japan.
THE NAVAL BATTLE BETWEEN SHIRO-USAGI AND WANI
This story below was passed down for generations by the chief priests, as they would be the ones to refer to in regards to the real meaning behind the popular folklore. I’ve included the original Japanese text, and beside it my English transliteration.
It is said that the name “shiro usagi” (white rabbit) from the famous book Kojiki was related to a highly prestigious clan that controlled a particular area during the age of folklore, and was not truly referencing an actual rabbit that lived in the wild. This clan was peaceful by nature with their neighbors, similar to actual rabbits, which is the reason why they were nicknamed Shiro-Usagi.
Specializing in sea fare, the Shiro-Usagi clan sailed close to the islands of Oki and engaged in battles against bandits that were terrorizing the coast, who went by the name “Wani”, meaning “Shark”².
During the last battle with the bandits, members of the Shiro-Usagi clan suffered grave injuries. Fortunately, they were rescued by the god known as Ōkuninushi no mikoto³. Later, they worked hand-to-hand with Ōkuninushi no mikoto in order to dispel the Wani force, and bring order to the islands. It’s also said that the Shiro-Usagi clan allowed Ōkuninushi to take Yagami-hime to be his wife.
Here is more information regarding this battle, which is found in the a publication from Tottori Prefecture called “Tottori Shinpō” (鳥取新報), which was issued sometime in November of 1920.
The White Rabbit clan, ruling over the area near Tottori Prefecture, went to battle against the massive force of the Wani at Oki islands.
The Wani were a wild bunch of seafarers who caused havoc around the ocean of Japan.
It is written that the gods of the White Rabbits employed a strategy against the Wani called “Line up the Wani heads, now jump!”. It’s noted that fireworks were used to push the large force of the Wani to be grouped together, which is described as “line up their heads”.
These circumstances of the battle, as written in the Kojiki, is very interesting.
The Wani grand fleet fought the White Rabbits ruthlessly as if they were nothing, as they were pushed from Oki islands all the way to Keta Front. In the end, the Wani bested the Shiro-Usagi, as they were left bloodied from the superior assault from the sea bandits.
Seeing their opponents in their defeated state, the Wani army let out a battle cry, then withdrew from the battle area.
The last sentence written is “As our clothing has been ripped from our backs, this is the last we see of the Wani force”, which is similar to the description of the white rabbit losing his fur in the Kojiki.
Guess we can image that they were beaten near the brink of death, similar to the state in which the divine white rabbit after first reaching Inaba Country.
In the end, the surviving members of the White Rabbit clan recovered, and, with the help from Ōkuninushi no mikoto, chased after the Wani force and defeated them from good, ridding them from the area…or so it’s said.
ANOTHER LAYER TO THE REAL EVENT
If we take the story above as fact, then that means that the folklore from the Kojiki is coded for an actual navel battle between a reputable clan and sea rogues…as so recorded at Hakuto Shrine in Tottori Prefecture. Yet, the story does not end here. Apparently, this naval battle is coded yet again, with the original bearing a much more robust details, and intertwining parties involved.
On the blog, “Shinwa wo kagaku suru tanbou“, there is a discussion regarding the naval battle version spoken about above, and how there’s yet another theory about it being a coded tale for an actual historical event. This theory states that this historical event is known as “Battle of Baekgang” (白村江の戦い, reads as “Hakusontou no Tatakai” in Japanese), which is a true event that took place in old Korea in the year 663. Historical data reads this as a civil war between surviving clans of the ancient south-western kingdom of Baekje and their eastern neighbors of Silla. The groups from Baekje were supported by a Japanese force, while those of Silla found support in the form of troops from the Tang Empire of China. This battle took place both on on land & sea, with the masterful naval prowess of the Baekje at the forefront, later supported by the naval crafts of the Japanese. while the Tang Empire did the same for their side.
The naval battle story found in Hakuto Shrine parallels this Battle of Baekgang, with the Shiro-Usagi clan representing Baekje/Japan alliance (ie. the native clansmen), while the Wani force represents the Silla/Tang alliance (ie. the raiders). Of course, this particular event takes place at the end, with much more content found years before. In a similar fashion, the Baekje faced near annihilation at the hands of the rivaling army in their own homeland of Baekje, which first happened in 660. To their saving grace, survivors that fled south were able to find a glimpse of hope by the last Baekje ruler, Prince Buyeo Pung, who at the time found refuge in Japan. As the beaten Baekje warriors recover, and bolster their strength once again, a large Japanese naval fleet was sent out to assist in helping them continue the fight with the Tang army in the former southern city of Ungjin County (located present-day Gongju) on the Korean Peninsula. A few years later, in 663, the Baekje/Japanese force set out for their final battle in southern Baekje with the Tang army in the form of 5 naval face-offs.
As a reminder, this is just speculation for the origins of the “White Rabbit of Inaba Country”. In truth, there is more content regarding the struggle for power between the people of Baekje and Silla that prevents it from being a simple cut-and-paste in the form of a fairy tale, while the outcome found in history is different even the coded version of the tale (hint: the Baekje/Japanese force lost all 5 naval battles, which ended the survivors of Baekje completely). From what I understand, there is no strategy related to “lining up the sharks’ heads” used by the Baekje/Japanese force, although the Japanese naval fleet took the most casualties at the end, which included many of their ships being burned down.
This concludes our look at this wild take on a popular folklore. I’ve only introduced one theoretical take on this, for while there are more, the idea of a naval battle is the most interesting in my opinion. Like anything based on theory, the connection to a war that took place in Korea which the Japanese was also involved in isn’t a perfect one, especially the reasoning why, if the connection is true, it had to be re-written in a folklore that give no indications to the history behind it. Nonetheless, the coded version is pretty wild & exciting with its more pro-nationalistic theme and mythological image that is portrayed.
1) Currently, the website is down. Interestingly, I was able to visit the site a few times this year, but now this is no longer the case.
2) It’s been considered that the ancient use of the Chinese characters “和爾” is a reading for the sea creature “shark”, as well for “crocodile”. To stay consistent with the accepted viewpoints regarding the Kojiki, I will use the shark term.
3) This is another name for Ōkuninushi no kami (大国主神), as used in the articles here and here.